Gilbert, 7. grof Clare

Gilbert, 7. grof Clare


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Gilbert de Clare, sin Richarda iz Clare, se je rodil leta 1180. Poročil se je z Isabel, hčerko grofa Pembroškega.

Leta 1200 se je kralj John vpletel v dolgotrajno vojno s Francijo. Ta vojna je bila draga in John je bil prisiljen uvesti nove davke za plačilo svoje vojske. To je v Angliji povzročilo veliko zamer in Janezovemu položaju ni pomagalo, ko je leta 1205 kraljeva vojska izgubila nadzor nad Normandijo, Bretanijo, Anjoujem in Mainom.

Leta 1215 je kralj Janez še enkrat obupno poskusil pridobiti nadzor nad svojim izgubljenim ozemljem v Franciji. Ponovno je bil poražen in bil prisiljen plačati 40.000 funtov za pridobitev premirja. Ko je John poskušal pridobiti ta denar z uvedbo še enega davka, so se baroni uprli.

Gilbert de Clare je bil eden od voditeljev upora. Nekaj ​​baronov je ostalo zvestih, v večini držav pa je imel John zelo malo podpore. Janez ni imel možnosti za zmago in 15. junija 1215 je bil pri Runnymedu v Surreyu prisiljen sprejeti mirovne pogoje tistih, ki so se uspešno borili proti njemu.

Dokument, ki ga je kralj moral podpisati, je Magna Carta. V tej listini je kralj dal dolg seznam obljub, med drugim brez novih davkov brez podpore svojih baronov, zmanjšanje moči njegovih šerifov in pravico do poštenega sojenja za vse svobodnjake.

Baroni so dvomili, ali je mogoče zaupati, da bo kralj Janez držal besedo. Majhna skupina baronov je dobila nalogo, da poskrbi, da bo John izpolnil obljube, ki jih je dal v Magna Carti. Dva izmed izbranih baronov sta bila Gilbert de Clare in Richard of Clare.

Kmalu po tem, ko je podpisal listino, je kralj prosil za pomoč papeža Inocenca III. Papež je bil zaskrbljen zaradi tega upora in se je odločil izobčiti barone, ki so se borili proti svojemu kralju. Papež je zagotovil tudi denar za pomoč kralju Janezu pri zaposlovanju tujih plačancev za boj proti njegovim nelojalnim baronom. Državljanska vojna se je nadaljevala. Eden glavnih ciljev kralja Janeza je bil Richard iz Clare, novembra 1215 pa so njegove čete zavzele njegov grad pri Tonbridgeu.

Naslednje leto je umrl kralj John, nasledil ga je sin Henry III. Leto kasneje je umrl tudi Richard of Clare in Gilbert je postal sedmi grof Clare in peti grof Hertforda. Čeprav sta bila sinova hudih sovražnikov, sta Gilbert in Henry postala tesna prijatelja in nedolgo nazaj je bila družina vrnjena gradu Tonbridge.

Leta 1225 je Gilbert podedoval posestva in naslov grofa Gloucesterja. Podedoval je tudi posestva svoje babice Maud de St. Hilary. Gilbert de Clare je bil zdaj najmočnejši magnat v Angliji. Nadziral je 456 graščin in na zahtevo je moral kralju priskrbeti 260 vitezov. Leta 1230 se je Gilbert de Clare strinjal, da bo Henriku III pomagal osvojiti deželo, ki jo je kralj Janez izgubil v Franciji.

Gilbert de Clare je bil ubit med borbo v kraljevi vojski v Bretanji 25. oktobra 1230.


Gilbert de Clare

  • Z Alice de Lusignan 1236/-1290 (Starši: grof Hugh XI Lusignan iz Marche 1220-1260 & amp Yolande of Dreux 1212-1248) z
    • Isabel de Clare 1262-1333 Z Guyjem de Beauchampom 1278-1315
      Isabel de Clare 1262-1333 Z Mauriceom de Berkeleyjem
    • Joan de Clare 1264-1322 z grofom Duncanom MacDuffom IX iz Fife, Earl of Fife 1262-1288
    • Gilbert de Clare 1291-1314
    • Lady Margaret iz Clare 1292-1342 S Hughom de Audleyjem 1289-1347
      Lady Margaret iz Clare 1292-1342 S Piers Gaveston † 1312
    • Lady Eleonore of Clare 1293- Z Williamom la Zouchejem
      Lady Eleonore of Clare 1293- S Hughom, mlajšim despenserjem 1286-1326
    • Lady Elizabeth Of Clare 1295-1360 z grofom Janezom IV. Iz Ulster-Burgha 1286-1313
      Lady Elizabeth Of Clare 1295-1360 Poročena leta 1315 baronu Theobaldu II Verdonskemu 1278-1316

    Posrednik med kraljem in aristokratsko opozicijo

    Gilbertova mama je umrla aprila 1307, kmalu zatem pa ga je novi kralj Edward II po njegovem vstopu na prestol priznal za dediča očetove posesti. Marca 1308 je pri 16 letih postal grof Gloucester in grof Hertford. Z ocenjenim letnim prihodkom okoli 6.000 funtov je bil drugi najbogatejši angleški plemič za grofom Lancasterjem, ki je imel okoli 8.000 funtov na leto.

    Kljub mladosti je postal Stražar Škotske med škotsko vojno za neodvisnost od 1308 do 1309 in Kapitan Škotske in škotskih pohodov naslednje leto. Vendar je vladavino kralja Edvarda II zaznamovalo več kriz. Poleg vojne s Škotsko se je angleško plemstvo uprlo vplivu kraljevskega ljubimca Piersa Gavestona, ki je bil poročen z Gilbertovo sestro Margaret. Kljub temu je bil Gilbert eden izmed Lords Ordainers ki je pod pritiskom aristokratske opozicije izdelal program reforme vlade, tako imenovane odloke. Vendar pa ni bil eden od radikalnih plemičev, ki so Gavestona leta 1311 prisilili v izgnanstvo in ga ob njegovi vrnitvi leta 1312 ugrabili in ubili. Spravil se je s kraljem in tako postal posrednik med kraljem in nezadovoljnimi plemiči pod vodstvom Thomas iz Lancasterja. Gilbert je verjetno užival zaupanje plemičev, predvsem pa kralja. Kralj ga je imenoval marca 1311 med njegovim bivanjem na Škotskem in poleti 1313 med njegovim potovanjem v Francijo dvakrat za regenta. Zaradi pogajalskih izkušenj ga je kralj februarja 1314 poslal kot svojega odposlanca v Gaskonijo, ki je bila takrat del Anglije.


    Gilbert de Clare, Rdeči grof

    Gilbert de Clare, 6. grof od Hertforda, 7. grof od Gloucesterja, 3. Lord of Glamorgan, 9. Lord of Clare, je bil grozna oseba, pohlepna in brez srca do psihopatije …, zato se je v srednjem veku zelo dobro odrezal. (Psihopati se res dobro obnesejo v skoraj vseh obdobjih.) Bil je znan kot Rdeči grof, morda zato, ker je bil ingver, a bolj verjetno zato, ker je imel rdeče lase in krvave volje.

    Gilbert je bil najstarejši preživeli sin sina Richarda de Clara, grofa Hertfordskega in Gloucesterja, ki je zaradi Anglo-Normanskih vdorov v Wales v poznem 12. stoletju zahteval gospostvo Glamorgan. Rojen jeseni leta 1243, ko je bil star komaj deset let, je bil de Clare poročen z Alice de Lusignan, nečakinjo Henrika III., Ki je bila najstarejša od kraljevih polbratov Poitevin, Hugh XI iz Lusignana. Ta poroka bi bila že nesrečna, ko je de Clare leta 1262 postal grof Gloucester.

    Čeprav je bil eden najmočnejših in najbogatejših od lordov markerjev, je bil de Clare vseeno nezadovoljen, koliko HE dobi od krone. Ni mu bilo všeč dejstvo, da sta se polbrata kralja Henrika III, Lusignani, poročila z dedinjami in pridobila dežele in gradove. De Clare je še posebej zameril, da ne dobi toliko kot Lusignani, čeprav je bil poročen z eno od njihovih dedič. Tako se je de Clare pridružil koaliciji upornikov pod vodstvom drugega lorda marša, Simona de Montforta, v drugi vojni baronov in#8217.

    Prva stvar, ki jo je de Clare storil za de Montforta, je bilo to, da je aprila 1264 pobil Canterburyjske Jude. Montfort in drugi, vključno z de Clarejem, so imeli veliko denarja judovskih bankirjev, zato so se odločili, da je njihova "krščanska dolžnost" izbrisati neverniki ... in njihovi dolgovi hkrati. To je kraljevsko razjezilo Henrika III., Kljub ostrim ukrepom, ki jih je sprejel proti samim Judom, in 12. maja 1264 sta bila de Clare in de Montfort imenovana za izdajalca krone.

    Le dva dni pozneje sta de Clare in de Montfort v bitki pri Lewesu ujela kralja Henrika III. Uporniški grofi so lahko vzeli za talca tudi svojega sina, princa Edwarda (bodočega kralja Edwarda I.), ko je Edward poskušal rešiti svojega očeta. Kralj je bil prisiljen podpisati Lewesovo miso, zaradi česar je Simon de Montfort postal vladar Anglije v vsem, razen v imenu.

    Plima pa bi se kmalu obrnila proti de Montfortu. 20. oktobra 1264 je papež Klement IV. Izobčil uporniške barone, vključno z Montfortom in de Clarejem, njihova dežela pa dala v zapor. Medtem je princ Edward pobegnil in zbiral vojsko, da bi osvobodil svojega očeta.

    Ker je bil papež proti njim, princ Edward na vojni poti in grofova lastna drobna zamera, ki jo je vodil de Montfort, da bi ga spodbudila, se je de Clare odločil, da je zrel čas za menjavo strani. Brez vesti, ki bi ga obremenjevala, je de Clare naredil občudovanja vreden plašč. Svojo novo zvestobo princu Edwardu je pokazal z uničenjem de Montfortovih ladij v pristanišču Bristol, pa tudi tistih, ki so bile zasidrane v bližini mostu čez reko Severn pri Gloucesterju. De Clare se je nato pridružil zmagovitim četam princa Edwarda pri Kenilworthu 16. julija 1265 in spet 4. avgusta v bitki pri Eveshamu. De Montfort je umrl v Eveshamu, oktobra 1265 pa je bil de Clare za svojo podporo nagrajen z podelitvijo naslovov Abergavennyju in Brecknocku.

    V naravi de Clare je bil zvest, a nikoli ni bil tako neumen, da bi se uprl kralju Edwardu I. Rdeči grof je bil dovolj pameten, da je vedel, da bi ga Edward prežvečil in izpljunil kosti. Borčeva manjvrednost grofa pred kraljem je bila potrjena leta 1282, ko je de Clare vodil angleške sile proti Valižanom v bitki pri Llandeilo Fawr, kjer je bil de Clare pretresan. De Clare se je uspel vrniti v dobro voljo Longshanka in potem, ko je bila leta 1285 razveljavljena grofova poroka z Alice de Lusignan, je 30. aprila 1290 dobil roko Edwardove hčere Joan iz Acre. Da bi se poročil z Joan, pa se je moral strinjati, da bo njegova dežela, če bo zveza brez otrok, odvzeta njegovi vdovi in ​​s tem kroni.

    Edward je tudi de Clare naučil lepo igrati z drugimi grofi v zameno za poroko s princeso. Ko je de Clare začel zasebno vojno s Humphreyjem de Bohunom, tretjim grofom Hereforda, glede zemljiških pravic, jih je kralj zaprl in oba sta bila »obsojena na doživljenjsko odvzem njihovih dežel in de Clare, grofa Gloucesterskega, kot agresorja, je bil kaznovan z 10.000 marami, grof Hereford pa s 1.000 maraki. Skoraj takoj so bili izpuščeni in obe njuni deželi sta jima popolnoma povrnjeni –, vendar sta bila oba naučena zelo javno lekcijo, njihov ugled pa se je zmanjšal in kralj &# Pooblastilo 8217 je prikazano za vse. "

    Nato so se spori med de Clarejem in Thomas de Cantilupejem, škofom Hereforda, in Godfreyjem Giffardom, škofom in upravnikom katedrale v Worcesteru (in nekdanjim kanclerjem Anglije), na sodišču rešili manj dramatično. De Clare je tudi podpisal pismo Baronov in#8217 papežu, ki je prisegel, da so podrejeni kralju, in "2. novembra predal kralju svoje zahtevke do zagovornika škofije v Llandaffu".

    De Clare in Joan sta bila poročena le nekaj več kot pet let, vendar sta v tem času uspela roditi štiri otroke, ki so vsi živeli do polnoletnosti. Prvorojenec in edini sin, Gilbert, Earl of Hertford in Gloucester, je podedoval očetov naslov, ko je de Clare 7. decembra 1295 umrl na gradu Monmouth, vendar je njegova mati Joan ohranila skrbništvo nad družinskimi zemljišči in se poklonila kralju leta ime njenega sina.

    Gilbert de Clare, 8. Lord of Gloucester, je bil ubit v bitki pri Bannockburnu leta 1314, ko je služil v vojski svojega prvega bratranca, kralja Edwarda II. Ker de Clare ni imel preživelih potomcev, so bila družinska posestva razdeljena med njegove tri sestre, Eleanor, Margaret (vdova Piers Gaveston) in Elizabeth. Vendar je Eleanorin mož, Hugh Despenser mlajši, najljubši in domnevni ljubimec kralja Edwarda II., Skušal vso pito dobiti zase. V nasprotju s svojim pokojnim tastom Despenser ni vedel, kdaj bi zložil slabo roko, zato ga je pohlep ubil.


    Zaostritev nacionalnega konflikta

    — Pismo iz Gloucesterja grofu Pembrokeu, citirano v Vita Edwardi Secundi.

    Kljub sodelovanju v baronskem reformnem gibanju je Gloucester še vedno ohranil kraljevo zaupanje. On, Gaveston in John de Warenne, 7. grof Surrey, sta bila edina grofa, ki sta kralja spremljala v škotski kampanji v letih 1310–11. Marca 1311, ko so bili odloki še v veljavi, je bil Gloucester imenovan za varuha kraljestva, medtem ko je bil kralj še na Škotskem. Obstajajo znaki, da bi se lahko spopadel s Thomasom, drugim grofom iz Lancastera - ki je bil na tej točki vodja opozicije proti kralju - zaradi spora med dvema njunima pripadnikoma. Ko se je Gaveston spet vrnil iz izgnanstva, je Gloucester stopil na stran baronske opozicije. Grofje so državo razdelili na različne dele za obrambo, Gloucester pa je dobil južno oblast. Junija 1312 je Gavestona ujel Guy de Beauchamp, deseti grof od Warwicka, ki je sodeloval z Lancasterjem. Aymer de Valence, drugi grof Pembroke, ki je imel skrbništvo nad Gavestonom in je kralju zagotovil njegovo varnost, se je za pomoč obrnil na Gloucester, sorodnika Gavestona. Gloucester pa ni hotel pomagati in Gaveston je bil ubit. To dejanje je državo pripeljalo na rob državljanske vojne, Gloucester pa je bil eden redkih moških, ki sta mu obe strani še vedno zaupali dovolj, da je lahko prevzel vlogo posrednika. V naslednjih mesecih je bil med glavnimi pogajalci, ki so si prizadevali za dogovor med kraljem in grozljivci, kar je bilo vsaj začasno uspešno.

    Gloucester je v naslednjih mesecih ostal v ožjem krogu okoli kralja. Poleti 1313 je bil spet kralj varuh kraljestva, medtem ko je bil kralj v Franciji, februarja 1314 pa so ga poslali v Francijo na diplomatsko misijo v zvezi z Gaskonijem. Α ] Β ] Največji problem vladavine pa sta ostala nerazrešen konflikt s Škotsko in ponovni nastanek Roberta Brucea. Poleti 1314 se je Edward končno lotil velike škotske akcije. Cilj je bil zaščititi angleško posadko na gradu Stirling pred napadom Brucea. Kampanjo je ovirala odsotnost nekaterih večjih magnatov, kot sta Lancaster in Warwick. V kraljevi družbi je bilo še nekaj velikih gospodarjev, med njimi Humphrey de Bohun, 4. grof Hereford, Pembroke in Gloucester. Ti možje so bili za kralja dragoceni zaradi njihove sposobnosti, da zberejo veliko število vojakov s svojih oblasti na valižanskih pohodih. 23. junija 1314 je kraljeva vojska prehodila Falkirk in je bila nekaj kilometrov od Stirlinga. Med grofovi Gloucester in Hereford pa so bili znaki spora. Gloucester je dobil poveljstvo angleške avangarde], položaj, ki si ga je prislužil z zvestobo kralju. Toda Hereford, ki je bil postavljen pod Gloucesterjevo poveljstvo, je menil, da mu poveljstvo pripada kot dedni veleposlanik Anglije.


    Ближайшие родственники

    O Gilbertu de Clareju, osmem grofu Gloucesterju

    še en možen datum rojstva

    & quotGilbert de Clare, 8. grof Gloucester in 7. grof Hertford (ok. 10. maja 1291 – 24. junija 1314) je bil angleški plemič in vojaški poveljnik v škotskih vojnah. V nasprotju z večino angleških grofov v tistem času se je njegov glavni poudarek namenil vojni in ne domačim političnim sporom.

    Bil je sin Gilberta de Clareja, sedmega grofa Gloucesterja, in Joan of Acre, hči Edwarda I. Starejši Gilbert je umrl, ko je bil njegov sin star komaj štiri leta, mlajši Gilbert pa je bil v mladosti vložen v svoj denar od šestnajstih. Skoraj takoj se je vključil v obrambo severne meje, pozneje pa se je zapletel v spore med Edwardom II in nekaterimi njegovimi baroni. Bil je eden od lordov, ki je leta 1311 odredil izgon kraljevega najljubšega Piersa Gavestona. Ko je bil Gaveston ubit ob vrnitvi leta 1312, je Gloucester pomagal pri pogajanjih o poravnavi med storilci in kraljem.

    Zdaj eden najmočnejših Edwardovih podpornikov, je kralja spremljal na pohodu na Škotsko leta 1314, ko je to zavrnilo več drugih plemičev. Umrl je v bitki pri Bannockburnu 24. junija pod nekoliko nejasnimi okoliščinami. Gloucester je bil eden najpomembnejših žrtev bitke, ki se je končala s ponižujočim porazom za Anglijo. Ker ni imel težav, je njegova smrt pomenila konec ugledne družine de Clare. Njegova posestva so si razdelili tri njegove sestre, od katerih je bila ena poročena s kraljevim novim ljubimcem, Hughom Despenserjem mlajšim. Despenserjeva neusmiljena širitev de Clarejevega gospostva Glamorgan v Walesu je neposredno privedla do težav poznejše vladavine Edwarda II., Vključno z uporom v valižanskih marših, porazom grofa Lancasterja v bitki pri Boroughbridgeu in sčasoma odlaganjem kralja Rogerja Mortimerja in kraljice Isabelle leta 1326. & quot

    [S6] Cokayne in drugi, The Complete Peerage, letnik III, stran 244.

    [S6] G.E. Cokayne z Vicaryjem Gibbsom, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand in Lord Howard de Walden, uredniki, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, nova izdaja, 13 zvezkov v 14 (1910) -1959 ponatis v 6 zvezkih, Gloucester, Združeno kraljestvo: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), letnik V, stran 712. V nadaljevanju citirano kot The Complete Peerage.

    [S7] #44 Histoire de la maison royale de France anciens barons du royaume: et des grands officiers de la couronne (1726, ponatis 1967-1968), Saint-Marie, Anselme de, (3. izdaja. 9 zvezkov. 1726. Ponatis Pariz: Editions du Palais Royal, 1967-1968), knjiga FHL 944 D5a FHL mikrofilmi 532,231-532,239., Letn. 2 str. 486.

    [S11] Alison Weir, Britanske kraljeve družine: popolna genealogija (London, Združeno kraljestvo: The Bodley Head, 1999), stran 82. V nadaljevanju citirano kot britanske kraljeve družine.

    [S18] Matthew H.C.G., urednik, Slovar nacionalne biografije na CD-ROM-u (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995), de Clare, Gilbert. V nadaljevanju citirano kot Slovar nacionalne biografije.

    [S39] Srednjeveški, plemiški, plemiški družinski listi (posneto 1996), Cerkev Jezusa Kristusa svetih iz poslednjih dni. Oddelek za družinsko zgodovino. Enota za srednjeveško družinsko zgodovino, (rokopis. Salt Lake City, Utah: posnelo Genealogical Society of Utah, 1996), film FHL 1553977-1553985 ..

    [S59] #765 Sto pralničarjev in dekanij Brisley v okrožju Norfolk: dokazi in topografski zapiski iz javnih zapisov, obiski heraldov, oporoke, sodni spisi (1877-1879), Carthew, George Alfred, (3 zvezki. Norwich : [sn], 1877-79 (Norwich: Miller in Leavins)), knjiga FHL 942,61 H2c FHL mikrofilm 990,425 postavka 1., letn. 1 str. 85.

    [S74] #550 Zgodovina in starine grofije Leicester, Nichols, John, (4 zvezka, vsak v 2 delih. London: Natisnil J. Nichols in zanj, 1795-1815), knjiga FHL X 942,54 H2nic., vol. 2 pt. 1 str. 344.

    [S81] #125 Angleške kraljeve hčere in njihovi predstavniki (1910-1911), Lane, Henry Murray, (2 voulmes. London: Constable and Co., 1910-1911), mikrofilm FHL 88,003., Letn. 1 str. 182.

    [S92] Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for 1952, Editor: Joan Evans, D. Litt., (Za družbo natisnil John BEllows LTD., Gloucester Issured November, 1953), letn. LXXI str. 105.

    [S106] Spletno mesto Royal Genealogies (ROYAL92.GED), na spletu ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. V nadaljevanju citirano kot spletno mesto Royal Genealogies.

    [S207] #235 Zgodovina in starine okrožja Buckingham (1847), Lipscomb, George, (Štiri zvezke. London: J. & amp W. Robins, 1847), knjiga FHL Q 942,575 H2Li FHL mikrofilmi 990,261-99., vol. 1 str. 201.

    [S452] #21 Celotno oplemenitenje Anglije, Škotske, Irske, Velike Britanije in Združenega kraljestva, obstoječe, izumrlo ali mirujoče (1910), Cokayne, George Edward (glavni avtor) in Vicary Gibbs (dodani avtor), (New izdaja. 13 zvezkov v 14. London: St. Catherine Press, 1910-), letn. 1 str. 346 let. 2 str. 130 vol. 3 str. 244, 257, 434 letn. 4 str. 43, 45, 269 letn. 4 dodatek. H grafikon III letn. 5 str. 346.

    [S673] #1079 Zgodovina Monmouthshirea od prihoda Normanov v Wales do danes (1904-1993), Bradney, Sir Joseph Alfred, (Publications of the South Wales Record Society, številka 8. Pet zvezkov v 13 London: Mitchell, Hughes in Clarke, 1904-1993), knjiga FHL 942,43 H2b., Letn. 3 str. 5, 8, 191.

    [S2420] #11886 Knjige rodovnikov The Golden Grove (posneto 1970), (Rokopis, rokopis številka Narodne knjižnice Walesa Castell Gorfod 7. Posnelo Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), mikrofilmi FHL 104,349-104,351., Knjiga 5 str . C624*.

    [S2511] Predniki Plantageneta kolonistov iz sedemnajstega stoletja: Potek od kasnejših angleških kraljev Plantageneta, Henrika III., Edwarda I., Edwarda II. In Edwarda III., Izseljencev iz Anglije in Walesa v severnoameriške kolonije pred letom 1701 (2. izd. ., 1999), Faris, David, (2. izdaja. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1999), knjiga FHL 973 D2fp., Str. 56 BURGH: 13.


    Ближайшие родственники

    O Gilbertu de Clareju, sedmem grofu Gloucesterju

    & quotGilbert de Clare, 6. grof Hertford, 7. grof Gloucester (2. september 1243 – 7. december 1295) je bil močan angleški plemič. Znan tudi kot "Rdeči" Gilbert de Clare ali "Rdeči grof", verjetno zaradi barve las ali ognjene narave v boju & quot

    [S11] Alison Weir, Britanske kraljeve družine: popolna genealogija (London, Združeno kraljestvo: The Bodley Head, 1999), stran 82. V nadaljevanju citirano kot britanske kraljeve družine.

    [S6] G.E. Cokayne z Vicaryjem Gibbsom, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand in Lord Howard de Walden, uredniki, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, nova izdaja, 13 zvezkov v 14 (1910) -1959 ponatis v 6 zvezkih, Gloucester, Združeno kraljestvo: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), letnik III, stran 244. V nadaljevanju naveden kot The Complete Peerage.

    [S6] Cokayne in drugi, The Complete Peerage, letnik XII/2, stran 177.

    [S6] Cokayne in drugi, The Complete Peerage, zvezek II, stran 129.

    [S6] Cokayne in drugi, The Complete Peerage, letnik I, stran 243.

    [S18] Matthew H.C.G., urednik, Slovar nacionalne biografije na CD-ROM-u (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995), de Clare, Gilbert. V nadaljevanju citirano kot Slovar nacionalne biografije.

    [S106] Spletno mesto Royal Genealogies (ROYAL92.GED), na spletu ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. V nadaljevanju citirano kot spletno mesto Royal Genealogies.

    [S2411] #11915 British Genealogy (posneto 1950), Evans, Alcwyn Caryni, (Knjige od A do H. Nacionalna knjižnica Walesa MSS 12359-12360D. Rokopis, posnet s strani Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), mikrofilmi FHL 104,355 in 104,390 item 2., knjiga 5 str. E2, 69*.

    [S2420] #11886 Knjige rodovnikov The Golden Grove (posneto 1970), (Rokopis, rokopis številka Narodne knjižnice Walesa Castell Gorfod 7. Posnelo Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), mikrofilmi FHL 104,349-104,351., Knjiga 5 str . C623, 624* knjiga 16 str. M1925.

    [S673] #1079 Zgodovina Monmouthshirea od prihoda Normanov v Wales do danes (1904-1993), Bradney, Sir Joseph Alfred, (Publications of the South Wales Record Society, številka 8. Pet zvezkov v 13 London: Mitchell, Hughes in Clarke, 1904-1993), knjiga FHL 942,43 H2b., Letn. 3 str. 2, 8, 191.

    [S673] #1079 Zgodovina Monmouthshirea od prihoda Normanov v Wales do danes (1904-1993), Bradney, Sir Joseph Alfred, (Publications of the South Wales Record Society, številka 8. Pet zvezkov v 13 London: Mitchell, Hughes in Clarke, 1904-1993), knjiga FHL 942,43 H2b., Letn. 3 str. 8.

    [S2] Paget Heraldic Baronage, Paget, Gerald, (Rokopis, posnelo Genealogical Society of Utah, 1957), grafikon št. 55 Berkeley, mikrofilm FHL 170063, grafikon št. 106 Burgh, Earls of Ulster, grafikon št. 130 Clare, mikrofilm FHL 170063, 2/2.

    [S2] Paget Heraldic Baronage, Paget, Gerald, (Rokopis, posnelo Genealogical Society of Utah, 1957), grafikon št. 182 Dozator, mikrofilm FHL 170064.

    [S2] Paget Heraldic Baronage, Paget, Gerald, (Rokopis, posnelo Genealogical Society of Utah, 1957), grafikon št. 130 Clare, mikrofilm FHL 170063, 2/2.

    Gilbert de Clare, sedmi grof iz Hertforda

    Iz Wikipedije, proste enciklopedije

    Gilbert de Clare, 7. grof od Hertforda in 3. grof od Gloucesterja (2. september 1243, v Christchurchu, Hampshire – 7. decembra 1295) je bil močan angleški plemič. Znan tudi kot "rdeč" Gilbert de Clare, verjetno zaradi barve las.

    Gilbert de Clare je bil sin Richarda de Clara, grofa Gloucesterja in Hertforda, in Maud de Lacy, grofice Lincolnove, hčerke Johna de Lacyja in Margaret de Quincy. Gilbert je podedoval očetova posestva leta 1262. Naslove, vključno z Lord of Glamorgan, je prevzel od leta 1263.

    Gilbertova prva poroka je bila z Alice de Lusignan, znano tudi kot Alice de Valence, hčerko Hugha XI iz Lusignana in družine, ki je zdaj nasledila družino Marshal do naslova grofa Pembroka v osebi Williama de Valence, 1. grof Pembroke.

    Poročila sta se leta 1253, ko je bil Gilbert star deset let. Bila je visoko rojena, bila je nečakinja kralja Henrika, a poroka je propadla.

    Gilbert in Alice sta se leta 1267 domnevno ločila, Aliceina naklonjenost je bila povezana z njenim bratrancem, princem Edwardom. Pred tem sta Gilbert in Alice rodila dve hčerki:

    1) Isabel de Clare (10. marec 1262-1333), poročena (1) Guy de Beauchamp, 10. grof Warwick (2) Maurice de Berkeley, 2. baron Berkeley

    2) Joan de Clare (1264-po 1302), poročena (1) Duncan Macduff, 7. grof Fife (2) Gervase Avenel

    Potem ko je bil njegov zakon z Alice de Lusignan leta 1285 dokončno razveljavljen, naj bi bil Gilbert poročen z Joan of Acre, hčerjo angleškega kralja Edwarda I. in njegovo prvo ženo Eleanor iz Kastilje. Kralj Edward je na ta način skušal de Clare in njegovo premoženje tesneje povezati s krono. Po določbah zakonske pogodbe bi lahko njuno skupno premoženje in de Clarejeva obsežna zemljišča podedoval le neposredni potomec, torej blizu krone, in če bi se poroka izkazala za brez otrok, bi zemljišča prešla na otroke, ki bi jih Joan lahko imela z nadaljnjo poroko .

    3. julija 1290 je grof v Clerkenwellu priredil veliko pojedino, da bi 30. aprila 1290 proslavil svojo poroko z Joan of Acre (1272 - 23. april 1307). Zamuda je bila v tem, da je papež olajšal in se dogovoril o dogovoru.

    Nato naj bi Gilbert in Joan vzela križ in se odpravila v Sveto deželo, vendar je septembra podpisal baronovo pismo papežu in 2. novembra predal kralju svojo zahtevo do zagovornika škofije v Llandaffu .

    Gilbert in Joan sta imela enega sina - njegovega naslednika:

    1) Gilbert, grof Gloucester (1291-1314), ki je bil ubit v Bannockburnu,

    1) Eleanor (1292-1337), ki se je poročila najprej s Hughom Despencerjem (mlajšim, najljubšim njenega strica Edwarda II.) - usmrčen je bil leta 1326, ona pa se je poročila z Williamom de la Zouchejem

    2) Margaret (1293-1342), ki se je poročila najprej s Piersom Gavestonom (usmrčen leta 1312) in nato s Hughom Audeleyjem

    3) Elizabeth de Clare (16. september 1295 -04. November 1360), ki se je poročila z Johnom de Burghom, 30. septembra 1308, opatijo Waltham v Essexu v Angliji, nato s Teobaldom iz Verduna leta 1316 in nazadnje z Rogerjem Damoryjem leta 1317. Vsaka poroka je bila kratka , rodila enega otroka (sina do prvega, hčere do 2. in tretjega) in jo pustila vdovo.

    Ker je bil očetov po smrti, je postal odvetnik Humphreyja de Bohuna, drugega grofa Hereforda.

    Aprila 1264 je Gilbert de Clare vodil pokol Judov v Canterburyju, kot je to storil Simon de Montfort v Leicesteru.

    Gilbert de Clare gradove Kingston in Tonbridge je prevzel kralj Henry III. Vendar je kralj dovolil de Clarejevi grofici Alice de Lusignan, ki je bila v slednji, da gre na prosto, ker je bila njegova nečakinja, vendar sta bila 12. maja de Clare in de Montfort obtožena kot izdajalca.

    Dva dni kasneje, tik pred bitko pri Lewesu, 14. maja, je Simon de Montfort vitezoval grofa in njegovega brata Thomasa. Grof je poveljeval drugi liniji bitke in kralja ujel, potem ko je obesil konja. Ker je bil ujet tudi princ Edward, sta bila Montfort in grof zdaj vrhovni in de Montfort dejansko de facto angleški kralj.

    20. oktobra 1264 je Guy Foulques de Gilberta in njegove sodelavce ekskomuniciral, njegova dežela pa dala v zapor.

    V naslednjem mesecu, do takrat, ko so dobili v posest Gloucester in Bristol, je bil grof razglašen za upornika. Vendar je na tej točki zamenjal stran, ko je spopadel z de Montfortom in grofom, da bi preprečil de Montfortov pobeg, uničil ladje v pristanišču Bristol in most čez reko Severn pri Gloucesterju.

    Ko je zamenjal stran, je de Clare 16. julija delil prinčevo zmago pri Kenilworthu in v bitki pri Eveshamu, 4. avgusta, v kateri je bil de Montfort ubit, je poveljeval drugi diviziji in v veliki meri prispeval k zmagi.

    24. junija 1268 je spreobrnjen in skrušeno sprejel križ v Northamptonu zaradi preteklih dejanj.

    Oktobra 1265 je Gilbert kot nagrado za podporo princa Edwarda prejel grad in naslov Abergavenny ter čast in grad Brecknock.

    Na Michaelmasu so bili njegovi spori z Llewelynom Zadnjim predloženi arbitraži, vendar brez dokončne rešitve. Medtem je grad Caerphilly gradil v trdnjavo. Konec leta 1268 ni hotel poslušati kraljevega vabila na sestanek v parlamentu in trdil, da zaradi neprestanega vdora Llewelyna Zadnjega njegova valižanska posestva potrebujejo njegovo prisotnost za njihovo obrambo.

    Po smrti Henrika III., 16. novembra 1272, je grof prevzel vodstvo v prisegi na zvestobo Edwardu I., ki je bil takrat na Siciliji, ko se je vrnil iz križarske vojne. Naslednji dan je z jorškim nadškofom vstopil v London in vsem, kristjanom in Judom, razglasil mir in prvič zagotovil priznanje pravice kraljevega najstarejšega sina, da takoj prestopi.

    Nato je bil v času kraljeve odsotnosti skupni varuh Anglije in ob prihodu novega kralja v Anglijo avgusta 1274 ga je zabaval na gradu Tonbridge.

    Med Llywelyn -jevim zadnjim valižanskim uporom leta 1282 je de Clare vztrajal pri napadu v južni Wales. Kralj Edward je tako postavil de Clara za poveljnika južne vojske, ki je napadla Wales. De Clarejeva vojska pa se je po hudi porazi v bitki pri Llandeilu Fawru soočila z katastrofo. Po tem porazu je bil de Clare razrešen položaja južnega poveljnika, zamenjal pa ga je William de Valence, prvi grof od Pembroka (sin je umrl med bitko).

    Naslednje leto 1291 se je prepiral z grofom Herefordskim, Humphreyjem de Bohunom, tretjim grofom Hereforda, vnukom svojega nekdanjega varuha, o gospostvu Brecknock, kjer je de Bohun obtožil de Clara, da je na svoji zemlji dosegel vrhunec v zasebni vojni med njima. Čeprav je bila vlada Marcherja dana zasebna vojna, je kralj to pravico v tem primeru preizkusil in jih najprej poklical pred sodišče svojih vrstnikov, nato pa spoznal, da bo izid obarval njihovo verjetno izogibanje škodljivosti enemu svojih največjih pravice, ki sta jih oba ugovarjala pred višjim sodiščem, ki so last kraljev. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.

    They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

    He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare.

    His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding. Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.

    at Christchurch, Hampshire

    at Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire

    Gilbert was nicknamed the 'Red Earl' after the colour of his hair. He was the eldest son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester & Hertford and Margaret de Lacy, the Countess of Lincoln. After his father's death in 1262, Gilbert, still a minor, inherited vast estates in the West Country, the Welsh Marches and Ireland. He took possession the following year.

    During Simon de Montfort's Rebellion of 1263-4, Gilbert was, initially, a keen supporter and he and his brother were knighted by the Earl shortly before the Battle of Lewes. However, being the two most powerful men in the country, a clash was inevitable. Gilbert was greedy for the spoils of victory, including additional authority in the government and a degree of independence for his vast estates. He therefore stood up as a defender of the 'Provisions of Oxford' - his father's initiative to establish a proto-parliament - and inferred that De Montfort's despotism was betraying its principles. In May 1265, Gilbert split from the De Montfort party and allied himself with the newly escaped Prince Edward, for whom he won the Battle of Evesham. However, while the surviving followers of De Montfort thought him a traitor, Gilbert's relationship with the Royalist party was hardly less strained.

    He became a champion for disinherited rebel sympathizers and protested at the lack of implementation of the 'Provisions of Oxford', even though the Royal victory rendered these redundant. With constitutional restraint and decency as his watch words, Gilbert seems to have hoped to exercise a detached role in English political life. When he found this impossible, he raised an army in 1267 and took over the city of London. His grievances were then placed before the arbitration of Richard, Earl of Cornwall. To all the World, Gilbert thence appeared reconciled with the establishment, but discontent was still festering.

    Gilbert took up the cause of the Cross in 1268 and promised to go on Crusade with Prince Edward two years later, although this never came to fruition. The following year, he succeeded in securing the restoration of lands to those who had been disinherited. Thereafter, however, his political autonomy was rendered impotent by firm Royal control and he remained loyal to King Edward I. Having been divorced from Henry II's hypochondriac half-niece, Alice De Lusignan, in 1271, Gilbert remarried, in 1290, to Edward I's daughter, Joan of Acre. The marriage contract stipulated his vast estates could only be inherited by their descendents, thus greatly increasing the chances of them reverting to the Crown (which, indeed, occurred in 1314). Gilbert was thus bound still more closely to the Royal Court although, as late as 1292, he was being tried over disputed rights in the Welsh Marches. He only gained his freedom and the restoration of his lands, after paying a fine of 10,000 marks (ਸ਼,666.13s.4d).

    Gilbert De Clare spent his life attempting to establish himself in an independent political role from which he might negotiate his loyalty to the Crown. Whatever his actual view of the 'Provisions of Oxford', he played off one faction against another in the Civil War, exploiting the situation as an easy means of pursuing his own personal agenda. In this, he ultimately failed and was subsequently humiliated, largely because of his own political incompetence, but also due to the increase of Royal power after the Baronial Wars. In the end, although he remained at Court, he had become a relic of a bygone age. Earl Gilbert died in December 1295, at the age of fifty-two, and was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey (Gloucestershire) although his widow may have buried his heart in the church at their favoured Berkshire manor of Long Wittenham, where the two often stayed when attended the King at Oxford and Woodstock.

    THis web site tell more about Gilbert the Red

    Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertfo

    Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester (September 2, 1243, at Christchurch, Hampshire – December 7, 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare, probably because of his hair colour.

    Gilbert de Clare was the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy. Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263.

    Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.

    [edit] Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury

    In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury[1], as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester.

    Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed de Clare's Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

    Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the second line of the battle and took the King prisoner, having hamstrung his horse. As Prince Edward had also been captured, Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

    On 20 October 1264, de Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Guy Foulques, and his lands placed under an interdict.

    In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester.

    Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.

    On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.

    [edit] Activities as a Marcher Lord

    In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock.

    At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence.

    At the death of Henry III, 16 November 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.

    Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle.

    [edit] The Welsh war in 1282

    During Llywelyn the Last's Welsh rebellion in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward thus made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However de Clare's army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr. Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (who's son had died during the battle).

    [edit] Marriage and succession

    Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that had now succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They were married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten-years-old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered.

    Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267 allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters:

    Isabel de Clare (10 March 1262-1333), married (1) Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick (2) Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley

    Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife (2) Gervase Avenel

    After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was finally annulled in 1285, Gilbert was to be married to Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

    On 3 July 1290 the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307). The delay was in getting the Pope to facilitate and agree the arrangement.

    Thereafter Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land, but in September he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff.

    Gilbert and Joan had one son - his successor Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester (1291-1314) who was killed at Bannockburn, and 3 daughters: Eleanor (1292-1337) who married firstly Hugh Despencer (The Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II)-he was executed in 1326, and she married secondly William de la Zouche Margaret (1293-1342) who married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh Audeley and the youngest Elizabeth de Clare (16 Sep 1295 -04 Nov 1360), who married John de Burgh, 30th Sept 1308, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger Damory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left her a widow.

    In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.

    They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

    He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare.

    His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding. Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.

    Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares, 1217-1314, 1965

    ^ Richard Huscroft, Expulsion: England's Jewish Solution (2006), p. 105.

    Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester (September 2, 1243, at Christchurch, Hampshire – December 7, 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare, probably because of his hair colour.

    Gilbert de Clare was the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy. Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263.

    Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.

    Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury

    In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury[1], as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester.

    Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed his Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

    Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort 'knighted' the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the second line of the battle and took the King prisoner, having hamstrung his horse. As Prince Edward had also been captured, Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

    On 20 October 1264, de Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Guy Foulques, and his lands placed under an interdict.

    In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester.

    Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.

    On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.

    Activities as a Marcher Lord

    In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock.

    At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence.

    At the death of Henry III, 16 November 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.

    Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle.

    Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that had now succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They were married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten-years-old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered.

    Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267 allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters:

    Isabel de Clare (10 March 1262-1333), married (1) Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick (2) Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley

    Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife (2) Gervase Avenel

    After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was finally annulled in 1285, Gilbert was to be married to Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

    On 3 July 1290 the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with the Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307). The delay was in getting the Pope to facilitate and agree the arrangement.

    Thereafter Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land, but in September he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff.

    In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.

    They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

    He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare.

    His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307.

    Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares, 1217-1314, 1965


    Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester

    Not much is known about the early life and upbringing of Gilbert de Clare, but his family had long been members of the English nobility and his father, Richard, was a powerful lord within the government of King Henry III and had been a leading figure in the ratifying of the provisions of Oxford (1258, a series of documents that continued upon the ideas of the Magna Carta, giving more control to the council and limiting the king's power). Gilbert began his adult life right around the time that the Second Baron's War, led by the king's brother-in-law Simon de Montfort, began to take shape. When Gilbert's father died (1263), Gilbert became Earl of Hertford and Gloucester but was angry when the king seized his lands (since he was technically still underage) and granted a huge dowry to the widowed countess, Gilbert's mother. It is for this reason that the new earl joined forces with Montfort against the king. The rebels defeated the royal forces at Lewes, and both the king and Prince Edward, his eldest son and heir, were taken captive, leaving Montfort in charge of the country's government. However, Gloucester became disillusioned with the way Montfort ran the country (and the fact that his sons were receiving most of the royal patronage available) and decided to rejoin the royal faction, attempting to rescue the king and allowing Prince Edward to escape captivity. Gloucester joined forces with the prince and several others to do battle against Montfort at Evesham, where they decisively defeated the rebels, with Montfort himself being killed.

    After Montfort's defeat, Gloucester was pardoned for all his earlier offenses but was still unhappy that his mother had such a large dowry, taking away from his own wealth, and that he had not been properly rewarded for his participation at the Battle of Evesham. Therefore, Gloucester was, once again, in open rebellion against Henry III, taking control of London and championing a group of disgruntled noblemen known as the disinherited (since they had lost their ancestral lands for participating in Montfort's rebellion). Luckily, the two sides were quickly able to reach an agreement, and the Second Baron's War officially came to an end with no bloodshed. The earl was again returned to royal favor, and it was agreed that he would accompany Prince Edward to the Holy Land (this never actually happened). However, Henry III angered Gloucester, yet again, by agreeing to a treaty with Prince Llywelyn of Wales which would have been detrimental to the earl's Welsh interests. An agreement was ultimately agreed upon, and after Prince Edward left on crusade (1270), Gloucester remained faithful to the old king until his death in 1272. Since the new King Edward I did not return from the Holy Land until 1274, Gloucester and other lords ran the government in his absence

    When the king returned, Gloucester undoubtedly faced a stronger monarch than he did in Henry III and was very much kept in check. The earl though, was a valuable ally to Edward I, who was dealing with increasing problems from Llywelyn in Wales, where Gloucester had considerable influence. By 1282, Llywelyn had been killed in battle, his brother Dafydd captured and executed the following year, and Wales was effectively annexed by England. In 1290, Gloucester became a part of the royal family when he married the king's daughter Joan, who was nearly thirty years his junior (he had already ended the marriage to his first wife). Despite the large age gap, the marriage proved to be a fairly happy one, producing a son and two daughters. The remainder of Gloucester's life was spent in conflict. First, he angered the king and was briefly imprisoned when he engaged in a feud with the Earl of Derby. Finally, the earl faced further revolts in his Welsh territories, forcing him and his family to flee Wales. Gloucester's Welsh territories were finally returned to him in October 1395, two short months before his death at the age of fifty-two. Gilbert de Clare, whatever one may think of his general personality, must be looked at as a strong man and a survivor. He continuously switched sides in the Second Baron's War and defied the king on many occasions, still keeping his wealth - and his head. That is more that can be said for many others who dared defy a king.

    The Earl of Gloucester appears in Edward I as a loyal servant to the king and is eventually married to his daughter Joan. Within the play, the marriage (which occurs in 1290 historically) happens before the deaths of Llywelyn and Dafydd (1282, 1283) and the coronation and deposition of John Balliol of Scotland (1292, 1296). Additionally, Gloucester outlives his wife Joan, who historically died in 1307, twelve years after the earl's death. These are some of the many historical inaccuracies within a play that is highly episodic.


    Gilbert, 7th Earl of Clare - History

    Research Notes:

    7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester.

    From Wikipedia - Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford :

    Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford (1180 - 25. oktober , 1230 ) was the son of Richard de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford , from whom he inherited the Clare estates, from his mother, Amice Fitz William, the estates of Gloucester and the honour of St. Hilary, and from Rohese, an ancestor, the moiety of the Giffard estates. In June 1202, he was entrusted with the lands of Harfleur in Montrevillers .

    In 1215 Gilbert and his father were two of the barons made Velika karta sureties and championed Louis "le Dauphin" of France v First Barons' War , fighting at Lincoln under the baronial banner. He was taken prisoner in 1217 by William Marshal , whose daughter Isabel he later married.

    In 1223 he accompanied his brother-in-law, Earl Marshal , in an expedition into Wales. In 1225 he was present at the confirmation of the Magna Carta by Henrik III . In 1228 he led an army against the Welsh, capturing Morgan Gam , who was released the next year. He then joined in an expedition to Brittany , but died on his way back to Penrose in that duchy. His body was conveyed home by way of Plymouth in Cranborne do Tewkesbury . His widow Isabel later married Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall & King of the Romans . His own arms were: Or, three chevronels gules.

    Hertford had six children by his wife Isabel , n e Marshal:[1]
    Agnes de Clare (b. 1218)
    Amice de Clare (1220-1287), who married the 6th Earl of Devon
    Richard de Clare (1222-1262)
    Isabel de Clare (1226-1264), who married the 5th Lord of Annandale
    William de Clare (1228-1258)
    Gilbert de Clare (b. 1229)

    Opaženi dogodki v njegovem življenju so bili:

    5th Earl of Hertford, 1217-1230.

    Earl of Gloucester, 1217-1230.

    Gilbert married Isabel Marshal, daughter of Sir William Marshal 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, on 9 Oct 1217. (Isabel Marshal died on 17 Jan 1240 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England.)


    English Historical Fiction Authors

    Gilbert de Clare (1243 to 1295), also known as ‘Gilbert the Red’ because of his hair colour and fiery disposition, was the seventh earl of Gloucester and sixth earl of Hertford. He was born at Christchurch, Dorset, on 2nd September 1243, the eldest son of Richard de Clare, earl of Hertford and earl of Gloucester (1222�).

    Gilbert de Clare

    The Clare’s owed their leading position in the English nobility to royal favour, inheritance, profitable marriages and a certain belief in the adage that ‘Might is Right’.

    In 1252 and ambitious to increase his family's standing and encouraged by King Henry III, who wished to strengthen relations between the crown and the nobility, Gilbert’s father arranged the marriage of Gilbert to the king's niece Alice for a dowry of 5000 marks (that’s around 𧿘,000 in today’s money). In the spring of the following year Earl Richard and William de Valence, the king's half-brother, accompanied Gilbert, then aged nine, to Poitou to solemnize the marriage.

    King Henry III

    As you can see, Gilbert was born with more than a silver spoon in his mouth he had a complete silver service clamped between his young jaws!

    In 1262 aged twenty, Gilbert inherited his father's estates and took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan.

    The Second Baron’s War saw Gilbert ally himself with Simon de Montfort and in April 1264, Gilbert emulated his leader by massacring the Jews at Canterbury, (just as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester).

    Not being best pleased with the young impetuous earl, King Henry took Gilbert’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge but Henry allowed de Clare's wife Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free. On the 12th of May 1264, de Clare and de Montfort were declared traitors.

    Two days later, on 14th May, Simon de Montfort knighted Gilbert and on that fateful day at Lewes the battle between Barons and Royalists commenced.

    In theory King Henry and his illustrious son Lord Edward (the future Edward the First) should have won the battle of Lewes. Gilbert commanded the central division of the Baronial army, Lord Edward the right wing of the Royalists. When Edward left the field in pursuit of Montfort's routed left wing, comprising of Londoners, the King and Earl of Cornwall were thrown back to the town. Henry took refuge in the Priory of St Pancras, and Gilbert accepted the surrender of the Earl of Cornwall, who had hidden in a windmill. Montfort and Earl Gilbert were now supreme with both the King and his son under arrest. Simon de Montfort was now the de facto King of England.

    King Edward I

    To put it into context, Gilbert had at first supported the King then he changed sides. Not a man to be trusted eh?

    In November the same year (1264) Gilbert removed his metaphorical Baronial hat and put on the Royalist one when he changed sides yet again to support Henry and Lord Edward.

    So it was that on August 4th 1265 at the battle of Evesham, Gilbert led the left wing of Lord Edward’s army and de Montfort was slain. Gilbert certainly knew how to pick a winner didn’t he?

    The battle of Evesham was also known as ‘the murder of Evesham’ as Edward went against the rules of chivalry and slaughtered even those attempting to surrender – Gilbert did his fair share of blood-letting. This second baron’s war didn’t end at Evesham as rebels held out all over the land.

    In September 1265 at the Parliament of Winchester the rebels were disinherited and their lands given to royal supporters.

    In April 1267 a certain Sir John de Deyville [1] and his men would not accept the dictum of Kenilworth [2] proclaimed on 31st October 1266 (this stated that the rebels had to pay their dues for their part in the wars). But Sir John needed a backer and guess who rode to his rescue? Correct: Gilbert de Clare!

    Our recalcitrant Earl changed side again and took his troops to London in defiance of King Henry and Lord Edward. Gilbert had the idea that whoever controlled London (and especially the Tower) controlled the realm.

    Model of 13th Century Tower of London

    King Henry was at Cambridge and Edward at Windsor when news reached them that Gilbert had entered London. The Londoners had no love for Henry and thought themselves a cut above the rest of England’s populace. Gilbert was welcomed with open arms and once again rebellion reared its ugly head.

    To be fair to Gilbert, his stated aim was to lighten the burdens imposed on the rebel knights and barons. He sought to use his occupation of London as a bargaining tool. Some say he had delusions of grandeur and thought to start another full-blown rebellion but, personally, I think his intentions were true.

    A certain Cardinal Ottobuono (Papal Legate) [3] occupied The Tower of London at the time and Gilbert set about laying siege so as to gain the Tower and cement his hold on London. Gilbert also tore down houses and set up defences on the South bank of the Thames at Southwark for he assumed that Edward would attack from this direction. Eventually Cardinal Ottobuono relinquished the Tower and set up residence at Stratford some miles East of the city.

    With the Tower in his control Gilbert naturally assumed his demands for reform were a certainty but – there’s always a ‘but’ isn’t there – he hadn’t taken the behaviour of Sir John Deyville in to consideration.

    If we accept that Gilbert’s occupation of London was undertaken with the best of intentions to seek redress for the Disinherited knights and Barons, to right what he considered a wrong in their treatment then Sir John Deyville’s intentions were completely the opposite.

    Sir John and his men basically ran amok through London. He even occupied Henry’s favourite Palace of Westminster and, not content with plundering anything of value that could be moved he even took away doors and windows! When King Henry heard about this he vowed dire revenge on the avaricious knight.

    Even the Londoners complained about Sir John and his followers who took drink, food, lodgings and even the local women of easy virtue without paying for them the Londoners were becoming disaffected the tide was turning.

    Then came news that the Royal army was on its way. Gilbert expected a direct attack but King Henry and Lord Edward took their forces to the Abbey of St Mary's, Stratford Langthorne where they met up with Cardinal Ottobuono.

    With an army almost on their doorstep the Londoners realised the game was up and supporters drifted away from Gilbert. More men flocked to the Royal banner at Stratford where, unbeknown to Gilbert, Lord Edward had taken charge and Edward wanted a fight.

    It was then that Henry’s brother, Richard of Cornwall came up with a plan he hoped would end this rebellion without bloodshed when he spoke words similar to this to King Henry

    Once this communication was handed to Gilbert and the turncoat earl had thought long and hard on his rapidly deteriorating situation he accepted the offer from the King which also included a Royal Pardon for himself (personally I would have hanged him!)

    On Saturday June 18th 1267 on the Feast day of St Mark (Marci) and St Marcellian a victorious Henry and Lord Edward rode into London to the sight of a cheering populace (they had to cheer for Henry had even offered them a pardon!)

    As Gilbert left London there was a final ignominy for him to endure. He had to relinquish Tonbridge Castle and/or his daughter and pay a fine of ten thousand marks.

    And Sir John Deyville? He was eventually pardoned and went on to redeem himself.

    Did Gilbert de Clare ever change sides again I hear you ask? Well not specifically. He did promise to accompany Lord Edward on Crusade but never actually fulfilled his pledge. He was constantly falling out with Edward and sailing close to the wind in his dealings with royalty (it was rumoured Edward had a dalliance with his first wife Alice but that’s another story).

    Gilbert was the first to accept Edward as King when Henry died in 1272 whilst Edward was on crusade. So that was a good move.

    Eventually Gilbert married Edward’s daughter Joan of Acre [4] but even then Edward had the last laugh for it was written that when Gilbert died all his lands and property would revert to Joan and thus back to the Crown.

    Gilbert Died: 7th December 1295 at Monmouth Castle, Monmouth.

    In conclusion: It is my opinion that Gilbert’s occupation of London in 1267 did indeed achieve his aims and that further opposition to the Crown was defused thanks to the changes he obtained.


    References: (1) Sir John Deyville (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography) http://bit.ly/2iADkIF
    (2) Dictum of Kenilworth http://bit.ly/2jxOT2C
    (3) Cardinal Ottobuono (ODNB) http://bit.ly/2jYVlwB
    (4) Joan of Acre http://bit.ly/2jya2tw

    [All above images are in the public domain]

    Darius Stransky wrote weekly columns and articles for prestigious UK media groups for many years. He then immersed himself in thirteenth-century English studies and thus was born ‘The King’s Jew’ series.
    Stransky’s ‘The King’s Jew Quartet’ is an adventure, a love story and a tale of intrigue and passion set against the backdrop of Edward the First and spans sixty-seven years of Cristian’s and Edward’s life together. Importantly, the life of the medieval Jew and the common man is not overlooked in this sweeping saga.
    Information on Books One and Two and worldwide purchase options are available here at his book page
    Paperback available HERE
    Connect with Darius at his website


    Poglej si posnetek: The Cosmic Game - Stanislav Grof


Komentarji:

  1. Prentiss

    nisi se zmotil

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    I am absolutely assured of it.



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