Ballard II DD -267 - Zgodovina

Ballard II DD -267 - Zgodovina


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Ballard II

(DD-267: dp. 1215; 1. 314'4 "; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'10 "; s. 35
k .; žrebec 122; a. 4 4 ", 1 3", 12 21 "TT; kl. Clemson)

Drugi Ballard (DD-267) je 7. decembra 1918 lansirala Bethlehem Steel Corp., Squantum, Mass .; pod pokroviteljstvom gospodične Eloise Ballard; naročen 5. junija 1919, poveljnik poročnika h 'M. Collier je poveljeval; in poročali Atlantski floti.

Med julijem 1919 in julijem 1920 je Ballard potoval po različnih pristaniščih v Evropi in Sredozemlju. Julija 1920 se je vrnila v ZDA in nekaj časa služila pri Atlantski floti. Nato se je odpravila na Pacifik, kjer je opravila tečajno usposabljanje in sodelovala pri manevrih .fleet, dokler ni bila 17. junija 1922 v San Diegu izključena iz rezerve.

25. junija 1940 je bil Ballard navadno dan v provizijo in vlečen v Union Yard of Bethlehem Steel Corp., San Francisco, za pretvorbo v pomožni razpis za hidroplane (prerazvrstitev AVD 10, 2. avgust 1940). 2. januarja 1941 je bila prejeta v polno provizijo in prijavljena letalom, taborniškim silam, pacifiški floti.

Z vstopom Združenih držav v drugo svetovno vojno je Ballard odplul v Pearl Harbor, kamor je prišel 28. januarja 1942. do novembra 1943 je skrbela za patruljna letala, postavljala letalske boje, spremljala konvoje in patruljirala po vzhodnem Pacifiku (Phoenix, Midway, Fidži, Espiritu Santo (Guadalcanal Florida in Nova Kaledonija). Vrnitev v San Francisco 7. novembra, dokončala je popravila 30. decembra 1943 in nato delovala kot stražar letala med operacijami usposabljanja letalskih prevoznikov v bližini San Diega do maja 1944.

Med 15. junijem in 3. julijem 1944 je sodelovala v operaciji Saipan, polagala je letalske boje in skrbela za prvo patruljno eskadrilo, ki je delovala s tega območja. Nato je opravljala patruljne naloge med zasegom otokov Palau (12. september 11. december 1944).

Konec decembra 1944 je v Seattlu začela novo obdobje na dvorišču. Po končanem popravilu je bila ponovno dodeljena stražarskim letalskim službam, ki so delovale iz San Diega do 1. oktobra 1945. Ballard je prišel v Philadelphijo 26. oktobra 1945, da bi začel remont pred inaktivacijo. 5. decembra 1946 je bila razgrajena in 23. maja 1946 prodana.

Ballard je za svojo službo med drugo svetovno vojno prejel dve bojni zvezdi.


Potop brodoloma v drugi svetovni vojni, odkrit v Filipinskem morju, je najgloblji doslej

Odkrita je bila razbitina ameriškega uničevalca iz druge svetovne vojne. Raziskovalna skupina je odkrila potopljeno ladjo več kot 20 tisoč metrov pod površino Filipinskega morja. Strokovnjaki menijo, da gre za USS Johnston, ki je potonil po bitki z japonskimi vojaškimi silami.

Najgloblji potopljeni brodolom, kar so jih kdaj odkrili, so odkrili v Filipinskem morju, so v sredo sporočili raziskovalci.

Razbitino ameriškega uničevalca iz druge svetovne vojne so strokovnjaki na raziskovalni ladji Petrel našli na globini 20.406 čevljev. Raziskovalci so s podmorskim brezpilotnim letalom poiskali skrivnostno ladjo, ki naj bi bila USS Johnston, uničevalec razreda Fletcher, potopljen med bitko pri zalivu Samar, ključno dejanje v bitki pri zalivu Leyte leta 1944. Grozljivi posnetki, ki jih je posnel dron prikazuje raztrgane razbitine ladje, ki leži na morskem dnu.

Research Vessel Petrel (R/V Petrel) je del Vulcan Inc., raziskovalne organizacije, ki jo je ustanovil pokojni soustanovitelj Microsofta Paul Allen.

Strokovnjaki menijo, da bo ladja bolj verjetno USS Johnston kot USS Hoel, še en uničevalec, ki je potonil v bitki pri Samarju.

Razbitino ameriškega uničevalca druge svetovne vojne so našli v Filipinskem morju. (Vulcan Inc.)

"Verjamemo, da je to olupina ameriške ladje USS Johnston DD-557," je v izjavi povedal Robert Kraft, direktor podmorskih operacij za Vulcan. "Ni dokazov o bleščeči shemi barv, ki bi kazali na USS Hoel in njena lokacija kaže, da je ta razbitina potonila kasneje v bitki, po izgubi Hoela."

USS Johnston je potopila 25. oktobra 1944 po ostrem boju z japonskimi silami, za kar je bila nagrajena s citatom predsedniške enote. Po podatkih poveljstva za pomorsko zgodovino in dediščino je od ladijske posadke 341 le 141 preživelo. "Od 186 izgubljenih jih je okoli 50 umrlo zaradi sovražnikovih dejanj, 45 jih je umrlo na splavih zaradi bojnih poškodb, 92, vključno z [poveljnikom Ernestom] Evansom, pa so bili živi v vodi po potopu Johnstona, vendar jih nikoli več niso slišali," pojasnjuje Poveljstvo za pomorsko zgodovino in dediščino na svoji spletni strani.

Raziskovalna ekipa R/V Petrel upa, da bo odkritje ladje prineslo občutek zaprtosti za družine mornarjev, ki so izgubili življenje na USS Johnston.

Ladja naj bi bila USS Johnston, uničevalec razreda Fletcher, potopljen med bitko pri Samarju. (Vulcan Inc.)

Odkritjem brodoloma RV Petrel ni tuje. V začetku tega leta so na primer strokovnjaki z raziskovalnega plovila odkrili razbitine letalskega nosilca druge svetovne vojne USS Wasp v Koralnem morju več kot 70 let po tem, ko je bila ladja potopljena med kampanjo na Guadalcanalu.

Tudi leta 2019 so raziskovalci na krovu RV Petrel odkrili eno prvih japonskih bojnih ladij, ki so jo med drugo svetovno vojno potopile ameriške sile. Ladja cesarske japonske mornarice Hiei je potopila 14. novembra 1942 na Salomonovih otokih.

Razbitino so našli na globini 20.406 čevljev. (Vulcan Inc.)

Paul Allen je oktobra 2018 umrl zaradi zapletov ne-Hodgkinovega limfoma. Njegova raziskovalna organizacija je odkrila številne zgodovinske vojaške brodolome, kot so razbitine USS Helena, USS Lexington in USS Juneau.

Razbitina je najgloblja doslej odkrita, pravijo raziskovalci. (Vulcan Inc.)

Največje odkritje skupine pa je prišlo leta 2017, ko so Allen in njegova ekipa v Filipinskem morju našli dolgo izgubljeno razbitino USS Indianapolis.

K temu prispevku sta prispevala Bradford Betz iz Fox News in Associated Press.


Za: delovna skupina 67

Verjamemo, da je sovražnik nedvomno doživel hud poraz. Admiralu Kinkaidu se zahvaljujemo za njegovo včerajšnjo intervencijo. Leeju se zahvaljujemo za včerajšnji trud. Naše lastno letalo je veličastno v svojem neusmiljenem udarjanju po sovražniku. Vsa ta prizadevanja so cenjena, vendar se največ poklonimo Callaghanu, Scottu in njihovim možem, ki so z veličastnim pogumom proti na videz brezupnim verjetnostim odgnali prvi sovražni napad in utrli pot do uspeha. Možje iz kaktusa jim v najglobljem občudovanju dvignejo zdrobljene čelade.

ALEXANDER A. VANDEGRIFT
General, ameriški marinci

Barton odpotoval iz New Yorka 23. avgusta v spremstvu Washington (BB 56) s Nikolaja in Meade, 27. avgusta prečkal Panamski prekop in prispel 13. septembra v Tongatabu na otokih Tonga. Dodeljeno Task Force 17 z DesRon 2, (Sims-uničevalci razreda Morris, Anderson, Hughes, Mustin in Russell), je pregledala letalonosilko Sršen (CV 8) v prekinjenem napadu na Buin, Faisi in Tonolai na otokih Shortland, 5. oktobra. Še vedno je bila del Sršen& rsquos spremstvo med bitko pri otokih Santa Cruz, 26. oktobra, ko Sršen je bil izgubljen.

Barton& rsquos žrtve v bitki pri Guadalcanalu.

Vir: Poročilo urada osebja o nesrečah, NARA.

29. oktobra je rešila sedemnajst preživelih iz dveh podrtih letal za letalski promet v bližini otoka Fabre.

Dne 12. novembra 1942 je Barton pomagal spremljati prevoze v Guadalcanal & rsquos Ironbottom Sound. Po polnoči je bila enajsta v vrsti med petimi križarkami in sedmimi drugimi uničevalci (DesRon 12 & rsquos Aaron Ward, Laffey in Monssen plus zlatarji Cushing in Sterett in 2.100 ton O & rsquoBannon in Fletcher), ko je kontraadmiral Daniel J. Callaghan & rsquos Task Group 67.4 prestregel veliko močnejšo japonsko silo, ki so jo vodile bojne ladje Hiei in Kirishima.

V SKLADU TISTIM, KI SO SE ZGODILI V GUADALKANSKI BITKI
13. NOVEMBER & ndash15, 1942

Vrhunskim častnikom in vojakom na morju, na kopnem, v zraku in pod morjem, ki so v zadnjih petih dneh za našo državo opravili tako veličastne podvige. Zmagali ste za neskončno hvaležnost svoje države in z zlatimi črkami zapisali naša imena na straneh zgodovine. Nobena čast za vas ne bi mogla biti prevelika, moj ponos na vas je neopisljiv. Veličastno narejeno. Naj Bog blagoslovi vsakega izmed vas. Slavnim mrtvim, pozdravljeni junaki in vsi lahko počivate pri Bogu.

WILLIAM F. HALSEY
Admiral, ameriška mornarica

V tej prvi pomorski bitki pri Guadalcanalu, Barton izstrelil štiri torpeda, preden se je vrnil, da bi se izognil trčenju. Dva torpeda iz sovražnikovega uničevalca sta jo zadela, preden je lahko spet stopila v pot & mdashone v svoji sprednji gasilski sobi, druga pa skoraj takoj v svoji sprednji strojnici.

Barton hitro prelomila na dva dela in potonila z izgubo večine svoje posadke, vključno z LCdr. Lisica. Težka križarka je kasneje pobrala le 42 preživelih Portland (CA 33) druge so rešili Higginsovi čolni iz Guadalcanala.

Leta 1992 je bila odprava, ki jo je vodil dr. Robert Ballard Barton& rsquos se priklonijo jugovzhodno od otoka Savo, počivajo na pristaniški strani v več kot 2000 čevljih vode, pri čemer sta obe sprednji 5-palčni puški še vedno usposobljeni za pristanišče. Krmni del ladje & rsquos ni bil odkrit.

Barton je v manj kot dveh mesecih na Salomonovih otokih zaslužila štiri bojne zvezde.


Nevarna preizkušnja Off Leyte

Ko USS Reid (DD-369) je potopila med napadom kamikaza, medtem ko je spremljala konvoj za oskrbo, s seboj je vzela polovico posadke. Za mnoge moške na ladjah in spremljevalcih konvoja je bil napad v zalivu Ormoc na Filipinskih otokih prvi stik s sovražnikom in hiter, besen, smrtonosni krst z ognjem. Toda konec Reida je bil začetek zgodbe o zvestobi, iznajdljivosti in predanosti dolžnosti ter o tem, kako so preživele rušilca ​​rešili neverjetni junaki, ki so strgali pesek.

Zavezniki so oktobra in novembra 1944 že zasedli vzhodno stran Leyteja, vendar je na otoških gričih in gorah ostalo izkopanih na tisoče Japoncev. Za dokončanje prevzema je 7. decembra mornarica izkrcala 77. pehotno divizijo ameriške vojske v bližini mesta Ormoc na zahodni strani otoka. V 48 urah je konvoj za oskrbo brez incidenta opravil krožni izlet iz zaliva Leyte v zaliv Ormoc. Medtem so Japonci, odločeni, da bodo držali Leyte, tja premestili več kot 30.000 vojakov z drugih bližnjih otokov.

11. decembra je bil Mahan-razred Reid, ki je preživel napad na Pearl Harbor, in pet drugih uničevalcev je spremljalo osem LSM (pristajalne ladje, srednje) in pet LCI (L) (desantne ladje, pehota, velika) drugega ešalona za oskrbo okoli južnega roba Leyte in v Ormoški zaliv. Ob 1700, ko so izvajali 12 vozlov, so s severozahoda napadli japonski lovci in torpedni bombniki, ki so prišli nizko v ozadju Leytejevih gora. Poročila se razlikujejo glede števila letal, od 10 do 13, gotovo pa je, da je imel zračni pokrov konvoja le štirih Corsairjev F4U polne roke dela. Takoj se je sedem lovcev A6M5 tipa 0 "Zeke" prebili in se napotili proti najbližji ladji - Reid, ki je bil od desnega pramca konvoja.

Mornarji so bili v preteklih dneh toliko v splošnih prostorih, da jih je veliko ostalo in celo spalo na svojih bojnih postajah, zato so pištole konvoja odprle strel v nekaj sekundah po ogledu letal. The Reid se je obrnila v pristanišče, da bi prinesla več pušk, in njena sprednja 5-palčna baterija je sestrelila dva lovca. Druga je eksplodirala približno 500 metrov od njenega desnega nosilca. Četrti borec, poškodovan in očitno v potopu s kamikazom, je v R pritrdil kriloeidPrednji desni desni boks in trčil v vodno črto. Eksplozija bombe je odprla nekaj šivov uničevalca. Peti Zeke je trčil v ReidPristaniški lok.

Usodni udarec je prišel manj kot minuto po začetku napada. Zeke je prišel s krme, prizadel jo je 20-milimetrski ogenj iz naslednje ladje v formaciji, LSM-42in je bruhal dim, medtem ko je njegov pilot krmaril proti krmi dimnika uničevalca. Borec je v plamenu trčil v njeno pristaniško četrt, bomba pa je eksplodirala v Reid'S po reviji in ladjo prerežemo skoraj na pol. Uničevalec se je močno pomaknil za 60 stopinj na desno, nazaj do 30, nato nazaj na 90 stopinj. Naredila je 20 vozlov, ko so se ji zataknili dušilci, in čeprav je ladja potonila, je nekaj napredovala in svoje mrtve in ranjene nanizala 300 metrov v morju. LSM-42 se je moral umakniti, da bi se jim izognil in Reid. Sovražniška letala so medtem moške udarila v vodo.

Reid Gasilec prvega razreda Arthur Anderson je ostal pri svojem mitraljezu, do pasu v morski vodi in vzdrževal učinkovit ogenj, dokler ni bilo prepozno, da bi se rešil. Električar Mate tretjega razreda Alfred Howard Akers Jr. je bil na njegovi bojni postaji, krmilni sobi, voda pa je pritekla skozi njegovo loputo. Odpustil je priložnost, da se reši, ko je ranjenemu sopotniku pomagal skozi loputo na varno. Akers in Anderson bi za svoje žrtve posmrtno prejela mornariški križ in sta bila med 103 člani posadke 268, ki so šli z Reidom. Ko se je približala, ji je voda stekla v skladovnico in manj kot dve minuti po usodni eksploziji kamikaza je sestopila ob krmo.

Reševanje preživelih

Po samo štirih mesecih na morju, LSM-42Posadka se je znašla pred dramatičnim reševanjem, medtem ko je okrog njih divjala bitka. Ker je 42 leva formacija rešila ReidPreživele je šla neposredno čez potopljeno ladjo, iz uničevalca je izbruhnila ogromna eksplozija, ki je dvignila krmo LSM iz vode, izločila njene kompase iz njihovih ograd, izklopila žiroskopski kompas in pretrgala več vrstic v strojnica.

V primerjavi z elegantnimi uničevalci, ki so ščetinkali s pištolami, je bila pristajalna ladja videti vse prej kot herojsko, s svojim odmevnim krovom in palubo, polno lekarn, obrokov, streliva in vozil. Ne glede na njene pomanjkljivosti je bil LSM zelo vodljiv, 42 pa se je med preživelimi omililo, odprlo svoja pramčana vrata in spustilo nakladalno rampo, ko so njeni člani posadke vzklikali mornarjem, ki so se borili v vodi. LCI (L) s548 in 661 ter LSM 38 in 39 so iz morja izločili tudi preživele skupaj z dvema truploma. LSM-42 pritegnil štiri častnike in več deset vojakov, vključno s štirimi nosilci. Približno 25 čevljev nad vodo je mojster strojevodje Mate drugega razreda Cecil Ray Johnston, ki je upravljal motor LCM z ločnimi vrati, opazoval le enega hudo ranjenega, ki se je šibko oprijel rešilnega splava. "Vedno je vpil na pomoč," je kasneje zapisal Johnston. "Ko pa sem ga gledal, so mu roke postopoma popustile in počasi je šel dol."

LSM-42 je morala še dokončati svojo misijo oskrbe. LCI (L) -661 prenesla še sedem nosilcev na 42, medtem ko je pristajalna ladja parila pri osmih vozlih, da se je pridružila konvoju. Njena posadka je rešenim moškim dala suha oblačila in pograde, ki so jih kmalu oblili s krvjo in dizelskim oljem. Opekline preživelih, zlomljene kosti in rane od gelerov so zdravili farmacevtov Mate drugi razred Elwood "Doc" Martin iz 42 let, ki je bil pred vojno pogrebnik Mate LW Brooks iz osebja skupine LSM Six in poročnik Richard H. Corales, ReidZdravnik.

Ko se zmrači, LSM-42 in drugi LSM in LCI so prišli na obalo na plažo Ipil, da bi dostavili svoj tovor zalog in okrepitev. Sovražnik je bil dovolj blizu, da so granate počile na razdalji 1000 metrov od plaže. Ameriške baterije in spremljevalni uničevalci so streljali na sovražne položaje in začeli japonski transport, ki je poskušal pristati tik ob obali blizu Ormoka.

Ob 0400 so vsi Reid preživeli z drugih ladij so se pridružili tistim na krovu LSM-42, s čimer se je skupno število povzpelo na precej več kot 100. Nato so bila plovila konvoja, ko so dostavili zaloge in okrepitve Ormoka, umaknjena, preden so se vrnila v bazo v zalivu San Pedro v zalivu Leyte. LSM-42pa so se ujeli na potopljeni japonski barki. Tako se je začela vrsta naključij, ki bi zahtevali vsak košček poguma in ustvarjalnosti, ki bi jih 42 -članska posadka lahko zbrala.

Prva pot povratka

LSM-316 je bil obtičal tudi na plaži in LSM-267Krmni sidrni motor, ki jo je bilo potrebno potegniti z obale, se ne bi zagnal. Ko so ga končno popravili, je bila plima tako nizka, da se je obtičala. Čas je bil kritičen, saj je prelomni dan zagotovo prinesel več sovražnih zračnih napadov. Vsak funt se je upošteval pri poskušanju dvigniti premce ladij, zato so balast in na tisoče litrov dodatnega goriva odvrgli, strelivo in moške poslali nazaj. Od treh zataknjenih ladij je le 316 uspelo priti s plaže.

Poskušala je vleči 267 z buldožerji in tanki, ki so potiskali proti premcem, vendar se ladja ni umaknila. Naslednji 316 je 42 poskušal izvleči 42 z plaže. Ko se je izvlekla iz potopljene barke, se je vlečna vrv ločila, 42 pa se ni moglo pravočasno ustaviti, da bi se izognilo hrbtu, pri čemer je pokvaril sedem palčni privez v obeh vijakih.

Nato je bilo premeščenih okoli 110 vojakov in 8 častnikov iz Reida LSM-316 11 najtežje ranjenih mož, Corales in še en častnik so ostali na krovu 42. As LSM-316 se mu je mudilo, da se pridruži konvoju, LSM-42 počasi se je oddaljila od plaže, saj je zaradi vrvi, zapletene v njene gredi, lahko naredila le okoli sedem vozlov. Toda bila je vodilna v človeku akcije, poveljniku poročnika Everettu E. Weiru, poveljniku šeste skupine LSM, Flotile 2 in prejšnji poveljnik LST-460. Počasnega tempa ni nameraval vzdržati dolgo in po eni uri je ukazal, naj se ladja ustavi.

Z improvizirano potapljaško masko in v spremstvu praporščaka J. W. Lawrencea je potonil pod ladjo in odrezal umazane črte z desnega vijaka. 42 se je nato nadaljevalo proti jugu do pristanišča Baybay, kjer so bili preostali preživeli Reidovi premeščeni v terensko bolnišnico 71. pehotne divizije ZDA. Medtem ko je bil v Baybayu, je Weire skupaj s tremi praporščaki šel čez stran in prerezal črte iz 42 -palčnega vijaka. Medtem pa LSM-267 je z naraščajočo plimovanjem priplavala z plaže Ipil in se pridružila svoji sestrski ladji. V teh nevarnih vodah so bili moški na krovu obeh LSM hvaležni za družbo in dodali ognjeno moč.

42 in 267 sta bila zasidrana v bližini obale in sta nameravala počakati na zaščito teme, preden nadaljujeta. Toda s plaže so prejeli obvestilo, da so blizu filipinske gverilske baze, ki so jo Japonci vsak dan bombardirali okoli 1530, LSM pa so dobili ukaz, naj gredo naprej. Dve ladji, ki sta se odpravili proti zalivu San Pedro okoli leta 1415, ne bi imeli počitka, v naslednjih 24 urah bi objeli plaže, da bi se izognili odkrivanju, boju proti sovražnim letalom in negi ranjenih mož ter poškodovane opreme.

Dve vabljivi tarči

Približno leta 1430 so se nad glavo pojavila japonska skavtska letala in lovci, dve ladji, ki sta bili v kamuflažnem vzorcu pobarvani v zeleno s črno v črni barvi, sta odrezala motorje in odplavala v upanju, da se bosta zlila v bližnjo obalo. Delovalo je. Toda ob 1700 se je pojavilo osem sovražnikovih lovcev, med njimi Zekes, Ki-44 "Tojos" in Ki-43 "Oscar", ki so obkrožili za napad s pristanišča in desnega boka. Potem pa je po besedah ​​Mateja Johnstona iz Motor Machinista »ves pekel izbruhnil«. LSM-ji so se odprli z vsemi pištolami-40-milimetrskimi, 20-milimetrskimi in 0,50-kalibri. Radikalno manevrirali čim bližje obali, so se hudo borili proti bombardiranju in premetavanju sovražnikovih letal, a pristajalne ladje borcem niso bile kos. Na srečo je patruljni uničevalec posredoval klic v sili in pet minut kasneje je par lovcev P-38 Lightning pregnal sovražna letala nad gorami.

Ko je bilo konec, so ladje porabile 2400 40-milimetrskih in 20-milimetrskih nabojev, pri vsakem plovilu pa je bilo poškodovanih sedem moških, vse razen enega z geleri (mornar je padel s kadi 42-palčne pištole na palubo spodaj in si zlomil zapestje) . Medtem ko je 42 utrpelo manjšo škodo, sta bila zveza in most 267 poškodovana, njen radar, radio in električno krmiljenje pa ni bilo več. Njen izvršni častnik je krmilo prevzel v krmilu v sili. Šrapnel iz splošne namembne bombe v bližini pogrešaj je na več kot sto mestih preluknjal desni trup 267, njen desni desni motor pa je bil izločen. Z le enim delujočim motorjem ladja ne bi mogla narediti več kot pet vozlov.

Da bi izkoristil maskirnost ladij, jim je poveljnik Weire ukazal, naj plavajo na koralnem grebenu, kilometer jugovzhodno od Green Pointa. Tam so z odprtimi ločnimi vrati in rampami navzdol mornarji delali, da so nosilce naložili v splave in jih odpeljali na kopno, pol milje stran. Drugi so plavali in hodili proti plaži ter opazovali nebo z razvezanimi rešitvenimi jopiči, pripravljeni zdrsniti iz njih in pod vodo, da bi se izognili stravanju, če se sovražnik vrne. Johnston je kasneje napisal: "To je bil najdaljši sprehod, kar sem jih kdaj naredil." Približno 110 mož je preživelo vroč, zastrašujoč večer na plaži in čakal, da zaide sonce. Ustanovljena je bila zdravstvena postaja in vsi, ki poznajo prvo pomoč, so priskočili na pomoč. Kljub temu je Yeoman tretjega razreda Ernest L. Sigismondi iz 267 umrl zaradi obsežnih poškodb.

Zadnja frustrirajoča noga potovanja

Do leta 2200 sta se obe posadki vrnili na ladje, vsi ranjeni pa so bili vkrcani na ladjo 42, ki je bolj sposobna plovbe. ReidPreživela, zdaj pa je skrbela za žrtve sestrske ladje, pa tudi za svoje.

Ladje so bile zatemnjene, kar je pomenilo, da so bile luknje v 267 zamašene. Ko so izčrpali zalogo lesenih čepov, so člani posadke uporabili ostanke lesa, srajce in vse, kar so našli. Da bi bile stvari še hujše, je črpalka za prenos goriva 267 izginila in moški so morali oblikovati brigado vedra za prenos kurilnega olja v dnevne rezervoarje. To je bila skorajda nemogoča naloga v temnih, utesnjenih prehodih.

267 je bil nameščen za vleko, toda radar 42 je takoj pobral skavtsko letalo, ki je krožilo nad glavo. V strahu pred novim napadom je Weire ukaz za vleko vlekel. Grožnja je minila, a eno uro kasneje je 267, ki je uporabljal le en motor in je bil voden s spodnje palube, trčil v 42, pri čemer je ranjene moške odtrgal iz pogradov in raztrgal 13-metrsko luknjo skozi njen trup v bolniški zaliv od dva centimetra nad vodno črto do krova nadgradnje. Moški so se trudili izčrpati vodo, ki je tekla skozi odprtino, in napolniti luknjo z žimnicami in hlačami. Trčenje je prerezalo električni in sladkovodni vod 42 ter zagozdilo dve loputi, zaradi česar so prednji odprtini vrat nedostopni. Bilo je eno za drugim, in ker so razmere postajale vse slabše, še vedno ni bilo nič drugega kot nadaljevati s pritiskom na pristanišče.

V zgodnjih jutranjih urah 13. decembra sta dve ladji večkrat poskušali vleči napravo za vleko, vendar v temi ni bilo mogoče pohabljenega 267 postaviti na položaj. Ob 0800, ko so se približali vzhodni strani Leyte in so se stvari končno začele dvigovati, se je preostali motor 267 ustavil. Zmedeni inženirji so se odločili, da je to verjetno zato, ker olje, ki je bilo dostavljeno iz vedra, ni šlo skozi čistilno napravo, nečistoče pa so onesnažile motor. Na srečo je svetloba dneva posadki omogočila vleko za vleko. Zagotovo so mislili, da nič drugega ne more biti narobe.

Toda ravno ko so ladje odplule, je vlečna uzda počila. Edino, kar je še preostalo, je bilo privezati 267 zraven in tako sta dve neustrašni pristajalni ladji šepali skupaj - 267 kot ranjeni bojevnik, ki se je naslonil na izčrpanega kolega - pri težkih šestih vozlih zadnjih 30 milj. Bilo je sladko olajšanje, ko so leta 1530 v zalivu San Pedro spustili sidro in LCI so prišli, da bi ranjence prenesli na bolniško ladjo Bogat (AH-9). Minila sta dva dni, odkar so mornarji LSM-42 in LSM-267 je spal več kot nekaj minut ali je imel celoten obrok.

To ni bilo nazadnje, ko sta se moža obeh dvoživk videla. 267 je bil vrnjen v službo, šest mesecev kasneje pa se je ponovno združila s 42 -imi, ki so drug ob drugem vadili na delno osvobojenem otoku Morotai. Tam so se zavezniške sile pri podpori ameriških pomorskih in letalskih sil pripravile na zadnjo večjo amfibijsko operacijo vojne, Borneov Balikpapan, kjer so boj vodili Avstralci.

"Sandscrapers" mornarice

Eden od zapletov pacifiške vojne je bil iskanje popolnega načina, da bi na peščene plaže pripeljali veliko ljudi in strojev. Vsaka vrsta pristajalnega plovila - od majhnih čolnov, kot je LCVP (pristajalno plovilo, vozilo in osebje) do LCI (pristajalno plovilo, pehota) do LCT (pristajalno plovilo, tank) - je imela prednosti in slabosti. Obstaja očitna potreba po dobro oboroženi ladji velike zmogljivosti, ki pluje po oceanu in bi lahko prevažala moške, stroje ali zaloge in se odpeljala naravnost do pacifiških plaž in spet izstopila. Konec vojne so prejšnji modeli prispevali k razvoju popolnoma nove ladje, ravno prave velikosti, s pravimi lastnostmi.

Prva LSM (pristajalna ladja, srednja) je bila dokončana aprila 1944. Kmalu je šest ladjedelnic proizvajalo eno na mesec. Več kot 550 jih je bilo lansiranih v nekaj več kot enem letu, v vsaki je bilo okoli 55 vpisanih vojakov in častnikov, ki so bili hitro, a strogo usposobljeni. Posadke so bile tesno povezane, saj so vpisani moški in častniki skupaj končali usposabljanje v Little Creeku v Virginiji.

Vkrcali so se na ladjo, polno oblikovalskih inovacij. V visokem premcu so bila vrata podobna tistim na LST (pristajalna ladja, cisterna), ki so se odprla in razkrila nakladalno rampo, na kateri so se džipi, tovornjaki in cisterne lahko peljali neposredno z ladijske palube do peska. LSM -ji so bili zelo vodljivi, saj so se med razbitinami in grebeni znašli na prenatrpanih obalah, njihova ploska dna pa so zdrsnila po peščenih palicah in plažah, kar jim je prineslo vzdevek "Sandscrapers", saj so ladje pri nalaganju vlekle le šest čevljev pri premcu. Ko se je LSM približal plaži, je padlo krmno sidro, funkcija, prilagojena iz LCI, in veriga se je razigrala, kar ji je pomagalo iti naravnost na plažo. Ko je bila ladja pripravljena za umik, je bilo povlečeno krmno sidro, ki je učinkovito umaknilo ladjo s plaže.

Seveda je ravno dno poskrbelo tudi za grobo vožnjo, saj je udarjalo valove, vendar so bile LSM med najstabilnejšimi ladjami na vodi. Imeli so nizko težišče in visoko središče lebdenja, kar jim je omogočilo približno štiri sekunde hitrega premikanja od polnega desnega boka do polnega pristanišča in nazaj.

Še več, večino je poganjal par dizelskih motorjev Fairbanks-Morse, večjih od tistih, ki so poganjali LST, kar je prineslo največjo hitrost več kot 13 vozlov. LSM je imel doseg 4900 milj. Dolga nekaj več kot 200 čevljev in s premerom 35 čevljev je lahko nosila pet srednjih ali tri težke tanke ali šest pristajalnih vozil z gosenicami. Odprta paluba LSM jo je naredila primerno za nakladanje z roko ali viličarjem. Bilo je celo nekaj ležišč za desantne sile.

Prvi LSM so bili oboroženi s šestimi 20-milimetrskimi puškami in takoj je bilo očitno, da lok potrebuje veliko več mišic. Nekaj, vključno z LSM-42, je imel na premcu en sam 40 mm, večina pa se je ponašala z dvojčki 40 mm. Velikih pušk ni bilo mogoče izuriti, da bi odganjale majhna plovila, zato so nekatere posadke dodale mitraljeze kalibra 50. Intendant drugi razred Edward W. Keenneweg iz LSM-42 nekega dne se je ozrl po pristanišču in na poškodovanih vojaških vozilih opazil par pušk .50 kalibra, za njih je zamenjal zaloge in orožje je bilo kmalu nameščeno na 42, pred 20-milimetrskimi kadmi za pištolo. Pogumne moške, ki so jih imeli v službi, ni skrbelo, da nimajo ščitov. Približno 40 LSM je bilo opremljenih kot namenske raketne platforme z oznako LSM (R). S krovom, polnim 5-palčnih raketnih lansirnikov z neprekinjenim nalaganjem, so prinesli neverjetno ognjeno moč poznejšim napadom, vključno z Iwo Jimo.

LSM so mesece po drugi svetovni vojni pluli v zahodnih pacifiških vodah in prevažali zapornike na obeh straneh ter vračali razseljene civiliste domov. Nekaj ​​LSM -jev je služilo v korejski vojni, nekateri pa so bili uporabljeni v drugih operacijah, zadnja v mornariški službi je bila razgrajena leta 1965. Nekateri so imeli dolgo življenje kot trgovci in reševalne ladje. Zasnovani so bili tako, da zasedajo posebno mesto med številnimi drugimi desantnimi plovili v drugi svetovni vojni. In vendar njihova vloga ni nikoli zastarela, saj jo je v današnji ameriški mornarici zapolnila nova generacija tehnološko naprednih ladij-napadalcev.

Poročilo o ukrepih: „Operacija enote za oskrbo z zalivom Ormoški zaliv (drugi ešalon), LSM-42, 15. december 1944, «RG 38, Uprava državnega arhiva in evidenc (v nadaljevanju NARA), College Park, MD.

Poročilo o ukrepih: „Drugi oskrbovalni ešalon, zaliv Ormoc, otok Leyte, LSM-267, 16. december 1944, «RG 38, NARA.

Avtorski intervjuji s S2C Estel Hamilton, LSM-42in MMM2C Cecil Ray Johnston, LSM-42in 26. septembra 1986 dopisovanje s F1C Kenneth G. Schoening, Reid.

Vstop Richarda Henryja Coralesa, nagrade WW2 Awards.com, http://en.ww2awards.com/person/45374.

Robert J. Cressman, Uradna kronologija mornarice ZDA v drugi svetovni vojni (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2000).

Križarjenje LSM 267, ki ga je sestavila in objavila posadka LSM-267.

Krovni hlodi, LSM-38, LSM-39, LSM-42, LSM-316, puša (DD-529), RG 38, NARA.

Rolf F. Illsley, LSM-LSMR: Amfibijske sile druge svetovne vojne (Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 1994).

"Leyte: Kampanje ameriške vojske v drugi svetovni vojni," http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/leyte/leyte.htm.

Samuel Eliot Morison, Leyte: junij 1944 – januar 1945, letn. 12, Zgodovina pomorskih operacij ZDA v drugi svetovni vojni (Boston: Little, Brown, 1958).

USS Reid 369, www.ussreid369.org.

Robin L. Rielly, Kamikaze napadi druge svetovne vojne: popolna zgodovina japonskih samomorilskih napadov na ameriške ladje z letali in drugimi sredstvi (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010).


Protokoli sionskih starešin

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Protokoli sionskih starešin, tudi klical Protokoli učenih sionskih starešin, goljufiv dokument, ki je služil kot izgovor in utemeljitev za antisemitizem predvsem v začetku 20. stoletja. Dokument naj bi bil poročilo o seriji 24 (v drugih različicah 27) sestankov, ki so bili v švicarskem Baselu leta 1897, v času prvega cionističnega kongresa. Tam naj bi Judje in prostozidarji načrtovali prelom krščanske civilizacije in pod njihovo skupno oblastjo postavili svetovno državo. Liberalizem in socializem naj bi bila sredstva za izkrivljanje krščanstva, če subverzija ne bi uspela, bi morali vse evropske prestolnice sabotirati.

The Protokoli so bili v Rusiji v skrajšani obliki natisnjeni leta 1903 v časopisu Znamia ("Transporter") in nato (1905) kot dodatek k verskemu traktu Sergeja Nilusa, carskega javnega uslužbenca. Prevedeni so bili v nemški, francoski, angleški in druge evropske jezike in kmalu so postali klasika antisemitske literature. V zasebnem časopisu Henryja Forda v ZDA, Dearborn Independent, jih je pogosto navedel kot dokaz judovske grožnje.

Lažni značaj Protokoli ga je prvič leta 1921 razkril Philip Graves iz Časi (London), ki sta pokazala očitno podobnost s satiro o Napoleonu III francoskega odvetnika Mauricea Jolyja, objavljeno leta 1864 z naslovom Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu ("Dialog v peklu med Machiavellijem in Montesquieuom"). Kasnejša preiskava, zlasti ruskega zgodovinarja Vladimirja Burtseva, je pokazala, da je Protokoli so bili ponaredki, ki so jih povezovali uradniki ruske tajne policije iz satire fantastičnega romana Joly (Biarritz) Hermanna Goedscheja (1868) in drugih virov.

Uredniki Encyclopaedia Britannica Ta članek je nazadnje revidirala in posodobila Amy Tikkanen, vodja popravkov.


Ballard II DD -267 - Zgodovina

Za: delovna skupina 67

Verjamemo, da je sovražnik nedvomno doživel hud poraz. Admiralu Kinkaidu se zahvaljujemo za njegovo včerajšnjo intervencijo. Leeju se zahvaljujemo za včerajšnji trud. Our own aircraft has been grand in its relentless hammering of the foe. All those efforts are appreciated but our greatest homage goes to Callaghan, Scott and their men who with magnificent courage against seemingly hopeless odds drove back the first hostile attack and paved the way for the success to follow. To them the men of Cactus lift their battered helmets in deepest admiration.

ALEXANDER A. VANDEGRIFT
General, U.S Marines

Following training operations off the West Coast, she was sent to the South Pacific to take part in the Guadalcanal operation, arriving in late August.

Replacing Farenholt (flagship of Capt. Robert G. Tobin, ComDesRon 12), Aaron Ward in Buchanan in the screen of Osa (CV 7) after the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, Laffey, s Duncan, Lansdowne and cruisers Helena in Salt Lake City, collectively rescued 1,946 survivors (see photo above) on 15 September, when Osa was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-19.

Laffey&rsquos casualties at the Battle of Guadalcanal.

Source: Bureau of Personnel casualty report, NARA .

Two night gun-and-torpedo battles off Guadalcanal highlighted the remainder of Laffey&rsquos short career. On 11&ndash12 October, at the Battle of Cape Esperance, she was third in line following DesRon 12 destroyers Farenholt (flag) and Duncan, leading cruisers San Francisco (flagship of Rear Admiral Norman Scott, CTG 64.2), Boise, Salt Lake City in Helena and rear DDs Buchanan in McCalla in turning back a Japanese bombardment group during action in which Duncan je bil izgubljen.

IN TRIBUTE TO THOSE WHO FOUGHT IN THE BATTLE OF GUADALCANAL
NOVEMBER 13&ndash15, 1942

To the superb officers and men on the sea, on land, in the air, and under the seas who in the past five days have performed such magnificent feats for our country. You have won the undying gratitude of your country and have written our names in golden letters on the pages of history. No honor for you could be too great, my pride in you is beyond expression. Magnificently done. May God bless each and every one of you. To the glorious dead, hail heroes&mdashmay you all rest with God.

WILLIAM F. HALSEY
Admiral, U.S. Navy

A month later, in the early hours of 13 November, she participated in the opening of the First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Second in line behind 1,500-tonner Cushing and ahead of Sterett in O&rsquoBannon in the van of Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callahan&rsquos 13-ship Task Group 67.4, she engaged Japanese battleships Hiei in Kirishima before sustaining a torpedo hit in the stern from destroyer Teruzuki. Her after magazines detonated shortly thereafter and she sank with a loss of 59 officers and men killed and 116 wounded. (Aaron Ward, Capt. Tobin&rsquos flagship on this occasion, led the four rear destroyers&mdashDesRon 12&rsquos Barton in Monssen, both of which were also lost in this action, and the 2,100-ton Fletcher, which emerged undamaged. Laffey, Sterett in O&rsquoBannon all received the Presidential Unit Citation for this action, as did Rear Admiral Scott&rsquos flagship Atlanta and Admiral Callaghan&rsquos flagship San Francisco.)

In 1992, a National Geographic expedition led by Dr. Robert Ballard discovered Laffey&rsquos remains at a depth of nearly a half-mile off Guadalcanal. As reported in the video and book The Lost Fleet of Guadalcanal, Laffey is upright and largely intact from the bow to amidships, but her after third has disappeared. Both forward 5-inch guns are trained out to port, and her midships superstructure is holed by a 14-inch projectile from a Japanese battleship.

In April 2006, cruise ship Clipper Odyssey hove to over the position of Laffey&rsquos remains. Mrs. Cary Webb Sears, daughter of LCdr. Hank, addressed the passengers and crew before leading a wreath ceremony.

In addition to her Presidential Unit Citation, Laffey earned three service stars on her Asiatic-Pacific Service Ribbon for participating in the following operations:


U.S. Naval Training Center Boot Camp Collections

The GG Archives houses a collection of Navy Boot Camp (USNTC) graduation books from four navy boot camp locations.

San Diego: Boot Camp San Diego was used from 1923-1997 and is now the site of Liberty Station. The base, located at the northern end of San Diego Bay trained tens of thousands of sailors. The site was also used as a location for a number of movies including Top Gun.

Great Lakes: Currently the only remaining Naval Training Center located in Waukegan, just north of Chicago. The original building dates from 1905. This station along with San Diego comprises the bulk of our collection of NTC yearbooks.

Orlando: Originally an Army Air Base, it was transferred to the Navy in 1968 when it became the Naval Training Center Orlando. This Naval boot camp was utilized until 1998. It had the distinction of being the only NTC providing training for female Navy recruits.

Bainbridge: Active from 1942 to 1947 and 1951 to 1976. USNTC Bainbridge was located about 35 miles northeast of Baltimore, Maryland. The majority of the recruits who went through boot camp at Bainbridge, about 244 thousand, did so during World War II.

Physical training, inoculation against diseases, and training in first aid, physical hygiene, and related subjects form another major part of the recruit training program. These articles highlight boot camp life, procedures, traditions, and more.

Collection of Navy Boot Camp Yearbooks - The "Compass" with rosters and photographs of recruits at the Naval Training Center at Bainbridge, Maryland. Our collection dates from 1951 through 1956.

Collection of Navy Boot Camp Yearbooks - The "Keel" with rosters and photographs of recruits at the Naval Training Center at Great Lakes, Illinois. Our largest collection of the boot camps encompasses the years 1947-2000.

Small Collection of Navy Boot Camp Yearbooks - The "Rudder" with rosters and photographs of recruits at the Naval Training Center at Orlando, Florida. This collection dates from 1970-1986.

Collection of Navy Boot Camp Yearbooks - The "Anchor" with rosters and photographs of recruits at the Naval Training Center at San Diego, California. One of our larger collections of boot camp books dates from 1955-1991.

Our small but growing collection of group photographs from Naval Training Centers. The photos in this section are large format. Small group photographs can also be found in many of the boot camp books in our collection.

Archive of Requests for Replacement Books or Scanned Copies of Specific Sections of the Boot Camp Graduation Yearbooks for Great Lakes, San Diego, Bainbridge and Orlando Naval Training Centers. We are no longer updating these Pages but will leave them up indefinitely so that those who have inquired can continue to receive leads. Also check our resource guide Finding United States Navy Boot Camp Graduation Books.


Titanic: Before and After

Yet on the night of April 14, 1912, just four days after leaving Southampton, England on its maiden voyage to New York, the Titanic struck an iceberg off the coast of Newfoundland and sank. Now, more than a century after the Titanic went down, experts are still debating possible causes of this historic disaster that took the lives of more than 1,500 passengers and crew. Most of them agree that only a combination of circumstances can fully explain what doomed the supposedly unsinkable ship.

It was traveling too fast.
From the beginning, some blamed the Titanic’s skipper, Captain E.J. Smith, for sailing the massive ship at such a high speed (22 knots) through the iceberg-heavy waters of the North Atlantic. Some believed Smith was trying to better the crossing time of Titanic’s White Star sister ship, the Olympic. But in a 2004 paper, engineer Robert Essenhigh speculated that efforts to control a fire in one of the ship’s coal bunkers could have explained why the Titanic was sailing at full speed.

The wireless radio operator dismissed a key iceberg warning.
Less than an hour before the Titanic hit the iceberg, another nearby ship, the Californian, radioed to say it had been stopped by dense field ice. But as the warning didn’t begin with the prefix “MSG” (Master’s Service Gram), which would have required the captain to directly acknowledge receiving the message, the Titanic’s radio operator Jack Phillips considered the other ship’s warning non-urgent, and didn’t pass it along.

It may have taken a fatal wrong turn.
According to a claim made in 2010 by Louise Patten (the granddaughter of the most senior Titanic officer to survive, Charles Lightoller), one of the ship’s crewmembers panicked after hearing the order to turn “hard-a-starboard” in order to avoid the approaching iceberg. Because ships at the time operated on two different steering order systems, he became confused and turned the wrong way𠅍irectly toward the ice. Patten included this version of events, which she said she heard from her grandmother after Lightoller’s death, in her fictionalized account of the Titanic disaster, Good as Gold.

WATCH: The two-part series Titanic in HISTORY Vault

The Titanic under construction at Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland. (Credit: Ralph White/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images)

The Titanic’s builders tried to cut costs.
In 1985, when an American-French expedition finally located the historic wreck, investigators discovered that, contrary to earlier findings, the Titanic had not sunk intact after hitting the iceberg but had broken apart on the ocean’s surface. Materials scientists Tim Foecke and Jennifer Hooper McCarty have cast blame on the more than 3 million rivets that held the hull’s steel plates together. They examined rivets brought up from the wreck and found them to contain a high concentration of “slag,” a smelting residue that can make metal split apart. This may have weakened the part of the Titanic’s hull that hit the iceberg, causing it to break apart upon impact.

Mirages and hazy horizons were created by weather conditions.
Two studies done around the time of the 100th anniversary of the Titanic disaster in 2012 suggested that nature played a key role in the ship’s fate. The first argued that the Earth came unusually close to both the moon and the sun that year, increasing their gravitational pull on the ocean and producing record tides, which caused increased amounts of floating ice in the North Atlantic around the time of the sinking. 

The second study, by British historian Tim Maltin, claimed that atmospheric conditions on the night of the disaster might have caused a phenomenon called super refraction. This bending of light could have created mirages, or optical illusions, that prevented the Titanic’s lookouts from seeing the iceberg clearly. It also would have made the Titanic appear closer, and smaller, to the nearby ship the Californian, causing its crew to assume it was a different ship without a radio, preventing them from attempting to communicate. From their vantage point, and with these hazy conditions, when the Titanic started to sink, the Californian’s crew would have thought it was merely sailing away.

VIDEO: Titanic Everyone knows the Titanic was big, and we have the hard numbers to prove it. Discover what made it a supersized ship.

The lookouts had no binoculars.
Second officer David Blair, who held the key to the Titanic’s store of binoculars in his pocket, was transferred off the ship before it left for its maiden voyage from Southampton, and forgot to hand over the key to the officer who replaced him. At a later inquiry into the sinking, a lookout on the Titanic said binoculars might have helped them spot and dodge the iceberg in time. Blair kept the key as a memento of his near-miss it was auctioned off in 2007 and fetched some ꎐ,000.

There weren’t enough lifeboats.
No matter what caused the Titanic to sink, such a massive loss of life could probably have been avoided if the ship had carried sufficient lifeboats for its passengers and crew. But the White Star liner left Southampton with only 20 lifeboats, the legal minimum, with a total capacity of 1,178 people. Though Maurice Clarke, the civil servant who inspected the Titanic in Southampton, recommended it carry 50 percent more lifeboats, his handwritten notes at the time later revealed that he felt his job would be threatened if he did not give the famous ship the go-ahead to sail. Due to the chaos that ensued after the Titanic struck an iceberg, the 20 lifeboats departed the ship with some 400 empty seats, leaving more than 1,500 people to perish in the frigid ocean waters.


Ballard II DD- 267 - History

By Dorothy Schwieder, professor of history, Iowa State University

Marquette and Joliet Find Iowa Lush and Green

In the summer of 1673, French explorers Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette traveled down the Mississippi River past the land that was to become the state of Iowa. The two explorers, along with their five crewmen, stepped ashore near where the Iowa river flowed into the Mississippi. It is believed that the 1673 voyage marked the first time that white people visited the region of Iowa. After surveying the surrounding area, the Frenchmen recorded in their journals that Iowa appeared lush, green, and fertile. For the next 300 years, thousands of white settlers would agree with these early visitors: Iowa was indeed lush and green moreover, its soil was highly productive. In fact, much of the history of the Hawkeye State is inseparably intertwined with its agricultural productivity. Iowa stands today as one of the leading agricultural states in the nation, a fact foreshadowed by the observation of the early French explorers.

Before 1673, however, the region had long been home to many Native Americans. Approximately 17 different Indian tribes had resided here at various times including the Ioway, Sauk, Mesquaki, Sioux, Potawatomi, Oto, and Missouri. The Potawatomi, Oto, and Missouri Indians had sold their land to the federal government by 1830 while the Sauk and Mesquaki remained in the Iowa region until 1845. The Santee Band of the Sioux was the last to negotiate a treaty with the federal government in 1851.

The Sauk and Mesquaki constituted the largest and most powerful tribes in the Upper Mississippi Valley. They had earlier moved from the Michigan region into Wisconsin and by the 1730s, they had relocated in western Illinois. There they established their villages along the Rock and Mississippi Rivers. They lived in their main villages only for a few months each year. At other times, they traveled throughout western Illinois and eastern Iowa hunting, fishing, and gathering food and materials with which to make domestic articles. Every spring, the two tribes traveled northward into Minnesota where they tapped maple trees and made syrup.

In 1829, the federal government informed the two tribes that they must leave their villages in western Illinois and move across the Mississippi River into the Iowa region. The federal government claimed ownership of the Illinois land as a result of the Treaty of 1804. The move was made but not without violence. Chief Black hawk, a highly-respected Sauk leader, protested the move and in 1832 returned to reclaim the Illinois village of Saukenauk. For the next three months, the Illinois militia pursued Black Hawk and his band of approximately 400 Indians northward along the eastern side of the Mississippi River. The Indians surrendered at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin, their numbers having dwindled to about 200. This encounter is known as the Black Hawk War. As punishment for their resistance, the federal government required the Sauk and Mesquaki to relinquish some of their land in eastern Iowa. This land, known as the Black Hawk Purchase, constituted a strip 50 miles wide lying along the Mississippi River, stretching from the Missouri border to approximately Fayette and Clayton Counties in Northeastern Iowa.

Today, Iowa is still home to one Indian group, the Mesquaki, who reside on the Mesquaki Settlement in Tama County. After most Sauk and Mesquaki members had been removed from the state, some Mesquaki tribal members, along with a few Sauk, returned to hunt and fish in eastern Iowa. The Indians then approached Governor James Grimes with the request that they be allowed to purchase back some of their original land. They collected $735 for their first land purchase and eventually they bought back approximately 3,200 acres.

Iowa's First White Settlers

The first official white settlement in Iowa began in June 1833, in the Black Hawk Purchase. Most of Iowa's first white settlers came from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, and Virginia. The great majority of newcomers came in family units. Most families had resided in at least one additional state between the time they left their state of birth and the time they arrived in Iowa. Sometimes families had relocated three or four times before they reached Iowa. At the same time, not all settlers remained here many soon moved on to the Dakotas or other areas in the Great Plains.

Iowa's earliest white settlers soon discovered an environment different from that which they had known back East. Most northeastern and southeastern states were heavily timbered settlers there had material for building homes, outbuildings, and fences. Moreover, wood also provided ample fuel. Once past the extreme eastern portion of Iowa, settlers quickly discovered that the state was primarily a prairie or tall grass region. Trees grew abundantly in the extreme eastern and southeastern portions, and along rivers and streams, but elsewhere timber was limited.

In most portions of eastern and central Iowa, settlers could find sufficient timber for construction of log cabins, but substitute materials had to be found for fuel and fencing. For fuel, they turned to dried prairie hay, corn cobs, and dried animal droppings. In southern Iowa, early settlers found coal outcroppings along rivers and streams. People moving into northwest Iowa, an area also devoid of trees, constructed sod houses. Some of the early sod house residents wrote in glowing terms about their new quarters, insisting that "soddies" were not only cheap to build but were warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Settlers experimented endlessly with substitute fencing materials. Some residents built stone fences some constructed dirt ridges others dug ditches. The most successful fencing material was the osage orange hedge until the 1870s when the invention of barbed wire provided farmers with satisfactory fencing material.

Early settlers recognized other disadvantages of prairie living. Many people complained that the prairie looked bleak and desolate. One woman, newly arrived from New York State, told her husband that she thought she would die without any trees. Emigrants from Europe, particularly the Scandinavian countries, reacted in similar fashion. These newcomers also discovered that the prairies held another disadvantage - one that could be deadly. Prairie fires were common in the tall grass country, often occurring yearly. Diaries of pioneer families provide dramatic accounts of the reactions of early Iowans to prairie fires, often a mixture of fear and awe. When a prairie fire approached, all family members were called out to help keep the flames away. One nineteenth century Iowan wrote that in the fall, people slept "with one eye open" until the first snow fell, indicating that the threat of fire had passed.

Pioneer families faced additional hardships in their early years in Iowa. Constructing a farmstead was hard work in itself. Families not only had to build their homes, but often they had to construct the furniture used. Newcomers were often lonely for friends and relatives. Pioneers frequently contracted communicable diseases such as scarlet fever. Fever and ague, which consisted of alternating fevers and chills, was a constant complaint. Later generations would learn that fever and ague was a form of malaria, but pioneers thought that it was caused by gas emitted from the newly turned sod. Moreover, pioneers had few ways to relieve even common colds or toothaches.

Early life on the Iowa prairie was sometimes made more difficult by the death of family members. Some pioneer women wrote of the heartache caused by the death of a child. One women, Kitturah Belknap, had lost one baby to lung fever. When a second child died, she confided in her diary:

"I have had to pass thru another season of sorrow. Death has again entered our home. This time it claimed our dear little John for its victim. It was hard for me to give him up but dropsy on the brain ended its work in four short days. We are left again with one baby and I feel that my health is giving way."

But for the pioneers who remained on the land 1, and most did, the rewards were substantial. These early settlers soon discovered that prairie land, although requiring some adjustments, was some of the richest land to be found anywhere in the world. Moreover, by the late 1860s, most of the state had been settled and the isolation and loneliness associated with pioneer living had quickly vanished.

Transportation: Railroad Fever

As thousands of settlers poured into Iowa in the mid-1800s, all shared a common concern for the development of adequate transportation. The earliest settlers shipped their agricultural goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans, but by the 1850s, Iowans had caught the nation's railroad fever. The nation's first railroad had been built near Baltimore in 1831, and by 1860, Chicago was served by almost a dozen lines. Iowans, like other Midwesterners, were anxious to start railroad building in their state.

In the early 1850s, city officials in the river communities of Dubuque, Clinton, Davenport, and Burlington began to organize local railroad companies. City officials knew that railroads building west from Chicago would soon reach the Mississippi River opposite the four Iowa cities. With the 1850s, railroad planning took place which eventually resulted in the development of the Illinois Central, the Chicago and North Western, reaching Council Bluffs in 1867. Council Bluffs had been designated as the eastern terminus for the Union Pacific, the railroad that would eventually extend across the western half of the nation and along with the Central Pacific, provide the nation's first transcontinental railroad. A short time later a fifth railroad, the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific, also completed its line across the state.

The completion of five railroads across Iowa brought major economic changes. Of primary importance, Iowans could travel every month of the year. During the latter ninetieth and early twentieth centuries, even small Iowa towns had six passenger trains a day. Steamboats and stagecoaches had previously provided transportation, but both were highly dependent on the weather, and steam boats could not travel at all once the rivers had frozen over. Railroads also provided year-round transportation for Iowa's farmers. With Chicago's pre-eminence as a railroad center, the corn, wheat, beef, and pork raised by Iowa's farmers could be shipped through Chicago, across the nation to eastern seaports, and from there, anywhere in the world.

Railroads also brought major changes in Iowa's industrial sector. Before 1870, Iowa contained some manufacturing firms in the eastern portion of the state, particularly all made possible by year-around railroad transportation. Many of the new industries were related to agriculture. In Cedar Rapid, John and Robert Stuart, along with their cousin, George Douglas, started an oats processing plant. In time, this firm took the name Quaker Oats. Meat packing plants also appeared in the 1870s in different parts of the state: Sinclair Meat Packing opened in Cedar Rapids and John Morrell and Company set up operations in Ottumwa.

As Iowa's population and economy continued to grow, education and religious institutions also began to take shape. Americans had long considered education important and Iowans did not deviate from that belief. Early in any neighborhood, residents began to organize schools. The first step was to set up township elementary schools, aided financially by the sale or lease of section 16 in each of the state's many townships. The first high school was established in the 1850s, but in general, high schools did not become widespread until after 1900. Private and public colleges also soon appeared. By 1900, the Congregationalists had established Grinnell College. The Catholics and Methodists were most visible in private higher education, however. As of 1900, they had each created five colleges: Iowa Wesleyan, Simpson, Cornell, Morningside, and Upper Iowa University by the Methodists and Marycrest, St. Ambrose, Briar Cliff, Loras, and Clarke by the Catholics. Other church colleges present in Iowa by 1900 were Coe and Dubuque (Presbyterian) Wartburg and Luther (Lutheran) Central (Baptist) and Drake (Disciples of Christ).

The establishment of private colleges coincided with the establishment of state educational institutions. In the mid-1800s, state officials organized three state institutions of higher learning, each with a different mission. The University of Iowa, established in 1855, was to provide classical and professional education for Iowa's young people Iowa State College of Science and Technology (now Iowa State University), established in 1858 was to offer agricultural and technical training. Iowa State Teachers' College (now University of Northern Iowa), founded in 1876 was to train teachers for the state's public schools.

Iowans were also quick to organize churches. Beginning in the 1840s, the Methodist Church sent out circuit riders to travel throughout the settled portion of the state. Each circuit rider typically had a two-week circuit in which he visited individual families and conducted sermons for local Methodist congregations. Because the circuit riders' sermons tended to be emotional and simply stated, Iowa's frontiers-people could readily identify with them. The Methodists profited greatly from their "floating ministry," attracting hundreds of converts in Iowa's early years. As more settled communities appeared, the Methodist Church assigned ministers to these stationary charges.

Catholics also moved into Iowa soon after white settlement began. Dubuque served as the center for Iowa Catholicism as Catholics established their first diocese in that city. The leading Catholic figure was Bishop Mathias Loras, a Frenchman, who came to Dubuque in the late 1830s. Bishop Loras helped establish Catholic churches in the area and worked hard to attract priests and nuns from foreign countries. Before the Civil War, most of Iowa's Catholic clergy were from France, Ireland, and Germany. After the Civil War, more and more of that group tended to be native-born. Bishop Loras also helped establish two Catholic educational institutions in Dubuque, Clarke College and Loras College.

Congregationalists were the third group to play an important role in Iowa before the Civil War. The first group of Congregationalist ministers here were known as the Iowa Band. This was a group of 11 ministers, all trained at Andover Theological Seminary, who agreed to carry the gospel into a frontier region. The group arrived in 1843, and each minister selected a different town in which to establish a congregation. The Iowa Band's motto was "each a church all a college." After a number of years when each minister worked independently, the ministers collectively helped to establish Iowa College in Davenport. Later church officials move the college to Grinnell and changed its name to Grinnell College. The letters and journal of William Salter, a member of the Iowa Band, depict the commitment and philosophy of this small group. At one point, Salter wrote the following to his fiancee back East:
"I shall aim to show that the West will be just what others make it, and that they which work the hardest and do the most for it shall have it. Prayer and pain will save the West and the Country is worth it. " 2

Throughout the nineteenth century, many other denominations also established churches within the state. Quakers established meeting houses in the communities of West Branch, Springdale, and Salem. Presbyterians were also well represented in Iowa communities. Baptists often followed the practice of hiring local farmers to preach on Sunday mornings. And as early as the 1840s, Mennonite Churches began to appear in eastern Iowa. The work of the different denominations meant that during the first three decades of settlement, Iowans had quickly established their basic religious institutions.

By 1860, Iowa had achieved statehood (December 28, 1846), and the state continued to attract many settlers, both native and foreign-born. Only the extreme northwestern part of the state remained a frontier area. But after almost 30 years of peaceful development, Iowans found their lives greatly altered with the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. While Iowans had no battles fought on their soil, the state paid dearly through the contributions of its fighting men. Iowa males responded enthusiastically to the call for Union volunteers and more than 75,000 Iowa men served with distinction in campaigns fought in the East and in the South. Of that number, 13,001 died in the war, many of disease rather than from battle wounds. Some men died in the Confederate prison camps, particularly Andersonville, Georgia. A total of 8,500 Iowa men were wounded.

Many Iowans served with distinction in the Union Army. Probably the best known was Grenville Dodge, who became a general during the war. Dodge fulfilled two important functions: he supervised the rebuilding of many southern railroad lines to enable Union troops to move more quickly through the South and he directed the counter intelligence operation for the union Army, locating Northern sympathizers in the South who, in turn, would relay information on Southern troop movements and military plans to military men in the North.

Another Iowan, Cyrus Carpenter, was 31 years old when he entered the army in 1861. Living in Ft. Dodge, Carpenter requested a commission from the army rather than enlisting. He was given the rank of captain and was installed as quartermaster. Carpenter had never served in that capacity before, but with the aid of an army clerk, he proceeded to carry out his duties. Most of the time, Carpenter was responsible for feeding 40,000 men. Not only was it difficult to have sufficient food for the men, but Carpenter constantly had to keep his supplies and staff on the move. Carpenter found it an immensely frustrating task, but most of the time, he managed to have the food and other necessities at the right place at the right time.

Iowa women also served their nation during the war. Hundreds of women knitted sweaters, sewed uniforms, rolled bandages, and collected money for military supplies. Women formed soldiers' relief societies throughout the state. Annie Wittenmyer particularly distinguished herself through volunteer work. She spent much time during the war raising money and needed supplies for Iowa soldiers. At one point, Mrs. Wittenmyer visited her brother in a Union army hospital. She objected to the food served to the patients, contending that no one could get well on greasy bacon and cold coffee. She suggested to hospital authorities that they establish diet kitchens so that the patients would receive proper nutrition. Eventually, some diet kitchens were established in military hospitals. Mrs. Wittenmyer also was responsible for the establishment of several homes for soldiers' orphans.

The Civil War era brought considerable change to Iowa and perhaps one of the most visible changes came in the political arena. During the 1840's, most Iowans voted Democratic although the state also contained some Whigs. Iowa's first two United States Senators were Democrats as were most state officials. During the 1850s, however, the state's Democratic Party developed serious internal problems as well as being unsuccessful in getting the national Democratic Party to respond to their needs. Iowans soon turned to the newly emerging Republican Party the political career of James Grimes illustrates this change. In 1854, Iowans elected Grimes governor on the Whig ticket. Two years later, Iowans elected Grimes governor on the Republican ticket. Grimes would later serve as a Republican United States Senator from Iowa. Republicans took over state politics in the 1850s and quickly instigated several changes. They moved the state capital from Iowa City to Des Moines, they established the University of Iowa and they wrote a new state constitution. From the late 1850s until well into the twentieth century, Iowans remained strongly Republican. Iowans sent many highly capable Republicans to Washington, particularly William Boyd Allison of Dubuque, Jonathan P. Dolliver of Ft. Dodge, and Albert Baird Cummins of Des Moines. These men served their state and their nation with distinction.

Another political issue facing Iowans in the 1860s was the issue of women's suffrage. From the 1860s on, Iowa contained a large number of women, and some men, who strongly supported the measure and who worked endlessly for its adoption. In keeping with the general reform mood of the latter 1860s and 1870s, the issue first received serious consideration when both houses of the General Assembly passed a women's suffrage amendment in 1870. Two years later, however, when the legislature had to consider the amendment again before it could be submitted to the general electorate, interest had waned, opposition had developed, and the amendment was defeated.

For the next 47 years, Iowa women worked continually to secure passage of a women's suffrage amendment to Iowa's state constitution. During that time, the issue was considered in almost every session of the state legislature, but an amendment was offered (having passed both houses of the state legislature in two consecutive sessions) to the general electorate only once, in 1916. In that election, voters defeated the amendment by about 10,000 votes.

The arguments against women's suffrage ranged from the charge that women were not interested in the vote to the charge that women's suffrage would bring the downfall of the family and would cause delinquency in children. Regarding the defeat of the 1916 state referendum on the female vote, Iowa-born Carrie Chapman Catt, a leader for the women's suffrage cause, argued that the liquor interests in the state should accept responsibility as they had worked hard to defeat the measure. During the long campaign to secure the vote, however, the women themselves were not always in agreement as to the best approach to secure a victory. Catt herself led the final victorious assault in 1918 and 1919 in Washington with her "winning plan." This called for women to work for both state (state constitutions) and national (national constitution) amendments. Finally, in 1920, after both houses of the United States Congress passed the measure and it had been approved by the proper number of states, woman's suffrage became a reality for American women everywhere.

Iowa: Home for Immigrants
While Iowans were debating the issues of women's suffrage in the post Civil War period, the state itself was attracting many more people. Following the Civil War, Iowa's population continued to grow dramatically, from 674,913 people in 1860 to 1,194,020 in 1870. Moreover, the ethnic composition of Iowa's population also changed substantially. Before the Civil War, Iowa had attracted some foreign-born settlers, but the number remained small. After the Civil War, the number of immigrants increased. In 1869, the state encouraged immigration by printing a 96-page booklet entitled Iowa : The Home of Immigrants . The publication gave physical, social, educational, and political descriptions of Iowa. The legislature instructed that the booklet be published in English, German, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish.

Iowans were not alone in their efforts to attract more northern and western Europeans. Throughout the nation, Americans regarded these new comers as "good stock" and welcomed them enthusiastically. Most immigrants from these countries came in family units. Germans constituted the largest group, settling in every county within the state. The great majority became farmers, but many also became craftsmen and shopkeepers. Moreover, many German-Americans edited newspapers, taught school, and headed banking establishments. In Iowa, Germans exhibited the greatest diversity in occupations, religion, and geographical settlement.

The Marx Goettsch family of Davenport serves well as an example of German immigrants. At the time of his emigration in 1871, Goettsch was 24 years old, married and the father of a young son. During a two-year term in the German Army, Goettsch had learned the trade of shoemaking. Goettsch and his family chose to settle in Davenport, among Germans from the Schleswig-Holstein area. By working hard as a shoemaker, Goettsch managed not only to purchase a building for his home and shop, but also to purchased five additional town lots. Later, Goettsch had homes built on the lots which he rented out. He had then become both a small business man and a landlord.

During the next 25 years, Goettsch and his wife, Anna, raised six children and enjoyed considerable prosperity. For Marx and Anna, life in America, surrounded by fellow German-Americans, did not differ greatly from life in the old country. For their children, however, life was quite different. The lives of the Goettsch children - or the second generation - best illustrate the social and economic opportunities available to immigrants in the United States. If the family had remained in Germany, probably all five sons would have followed their father's occupation of shoemaker. In the United States, all five pursued higher education. Two sons received Ph.D.s, two sons received M.D.s, and one son became a professional engineer. With the third generation, education was also a crucial factor. Of seven grandchildren, all became professionals. Moreover, five of the seven were female. As the Goettsch experience indicates, opportunities abounded for immigrants settling in Iowa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The newcomers and their children could take up land, go into business, or pursue higher education. For most immigrants, these areas offered a better, more prosperous life than their parents had known in the old country.

Iowa also attracted many other people from Europe, including Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Hollanders, and many emigrants from the British Isles as shown by the following table. After 1900, people also emigrated from southern and eastern Europe. In many instances, immigrant groups were identified with particular occupations. The Scandinavians, including Norwegians, who settled in Winneshiek and Story Counties Swedes, who settled in Boone County and Danes, who settled in southwestern Iowa were largely associated with farming. Many Swedes also became coal miners. The Hollanders made two major settlements in Iowa, the first in Marion County, and the second in northwest Iowa.

Proportionately far more southern and eastern immigrants, particularly Italians and Croatians, went into coal mining than did western and northern Europeans. Arriving in Iowa with little money and few skills, these groups gravitated toward work that required little or no training and provided them with immediate employment. In Iowa around the turn of the century, that work happened to be coal mining.


蘭利號航空母艦 (CV-1)

到美國參加第一次世界大戰之前,朱比特號成為美國大西洋艦隊輔助艦戰隊的一員,巡弋於大西洋與墨西哥灣之間。1917年4月,該艦改隸於海軍火砲試驗基地(Naval Ordnance Test Station),並曾在1917年6月與1918年9月搭載部隊前往法國。休戰後,該艦前往歐洲海域擔任供煤的任務,以服務運送部隊返美的海軍艦隻。美國海軍於1919年7月11日決定將朱比特號改裝為航空母艦,於是該艦於1919年12月12日航抵維吉尼亞州的漢普頓錨地,並於1920年3月24日除役。

朱比特號於1920年4月11日更名為蘭利號,以榮耀美國航空先驅,物理與天文學家,同時也是萊特兄弟的競爭者塞繆爾·蘭利博士 [2] 。該艦同時被賦與一個新編號,即CV-1。蘭利號的改裝工程在諾福克港進行,1922年3月20日蘭利號重新服役,由肯尼斯·懷汀(Kenneth Whiting)中校任首任艦長。1922年10月17日,維吉爾·葛瑞芬(Virgil C. Griffin)上尉駕駛一架沃特 VE-7SF ( 英语 : Vought VE-7 ) 戰鬥機,第一次從艦上起飛。這次的起飛是美國海軍正式進入空權時代的重要事件。9天後,也就是10月26日, 戈弗雷·薛弗萊 ( 英语 : Godfrey Chevalier ) 少校駕駛一架 艾爾馬林39B型水上飛機 ( 英语 : Aeromarine 39 ) 首次降落在蘭利號的甲板。11月18日,懷汀中校駕駛一架PT水上飛機首次從航空母艦上彈射起飛。 [3]

日本偷襲珍珠港時,蘭利號正泊碇在菲律賓的甲米地。日軍進攻菲律賓時,蘭利號先撤退至荷屬東印度的巴厘巴板港,再撤到澳洲的達爾文港,並成為美国-英国-荷兰-澳大利亚司令部的海上武力之一。蘭利號先協助澳洲皇家空軍的反潛巡邏任務,之後前往西澳的費利曼圖港,搭載33名陸軍航空隊飛行員,與32架已組裝完成,屬於第49驅逐大隊的P-40战斗机,2月22日出發前往爪哇島的芝拉扎港(Tjilatjap)。另一艘貨輪 海洋女巫號 ( 英语 : MS Sea Witch (1940) ) 則搭載其它27架未組裝的P-40战斗机,跟蘭利號一同出發。 [4]

本来蘭利號收到的命令是在2月28日清晨進入港口,這樣可以在夜色的掩護下前進,並避開日本飛機的可能的攻擊。但由於日本的攻擊部隊已經接近爪哇,於是ABDA的海軍指揮官,也是爪哇地區的指揮官,荷蘭籍海軍中將康拉德·赫爾弗里希於2月23日要求蘭利號盡速將飛機運抵芝拉扎港。但由於燃料問題使得蘭利號的航速只有10節,加上通讯出现問題,讓蘭利號在27日凌晨改變方向去與護航船隻會合,使得蘭利號需要在27日的白天駛進爪哇港。27日上午9:00左右被日機發現,蘭利號艦長羅伯特·麥克康奈爾(Robert P. McConnell)中校曾提出空中掩護的要求,但並無回音。中午11:40,在離芝拉扎港南方120公里處,蘭利號遭到9架一式陸攻機的攻擊,它被擊中五次以及兩個近接彈,造成16人陣亡,並引發大火。由於火勢蔓延及兰利号进水並傾斜了10度,由於動力系統泡水停擺且吃水過深,蘭利號被判斷無法抵達爪哇芝扎拉港,蘭利號在下午13:32分發出棄船命令,為了避免其落入日本海軍手中,護航的兩艘驅逐艦把乘員救起後,一共以九發4英寸炮彈與兩枚魚雷將蘭利號擊沉 [5] 。



Komentarji:

  1. Toan

    yeah. not bad already

  2. Tygor

    Neprimerljivo sporočilo, všeč mi je :)

  3. Sying

    And what do we do without your brilliant ideas

  4. Birdhil

    I gladly accept.



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